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1.Indo-European Languages | 2.Indo-European Words | 3.Indo-European Nouns | 4.Indo-European Verbs | 5.Indo-European Syntax | 6.Indo-European Etymology 1.Indo-europeiska språk | 2.Indo-europeiska ord | 3.Indo-europeiska svenska | 4.Indo-europeiska Verb | 5.Indo-europeiska Syntax | 6.Indo-europeiska Substantiv

4. 4. Nouns Ord

4.1. 4,1. Declension of Nouns Deklination för Ord

4.1.1. 4.1.1. Declension is made by adding terminations to different stem endings, vowel or consonant. Deklination görs genom att lägga avslutningar till olika stam ändelser, vokal eller konsonant. The various phonetic changes in the language have given rise to the different declensions. De olika fonetiska förändringar i språket har givit upphov till de olika declensions. Most of the case-endings, as shown in this Modern Indo-European grammar, contain also the final letter of the stem. De flesta av fall-ändelser, som visas i denna moderna indo-europeisk grammatik, innehåller även den sista bokstaven i stjälken.

Adjectives are generally declined like nouns, and are etymologically to be classed with them, but they have some peculiarities of inflection which will be later explained. Adjektiven är generellt minskat gillar artikeln, och är etymologically att klassas med dem, men de har vissa egenheter böjningsformer som kommer att senare förklaras.

4.1.2. 4.1.2. Nouns and adjectives are inflected in four regular Declensions, distinguished by their final phonemes – characteristic of the Stem –, and by the opposition of different forms in irregular nouns. Substantiv och adjektiv som böjs i fyra regelbundna Declensions, utmärker sig genom sin slutliga fonem - av en stam - och av oppositionen i olika former i oregelbundna substantiv. They are numbered following Graeco-Latin tradition: First or a - Declension , Second or o - Declension , Third or i / u - Declension , fourth or Consonant Declension , and the variable nouns. De är numrerade efter grekisk-latinsk tradition: Första eller - Grammatik, andra eller o - Grammatik, tredje eller i / u - Grammatik, fjärde eller Consonant Grammatik, och den rörliga artikeln.

NOTE. OBS. The Second or o-Declension is also the Thematic Declension , opposed to the rest – and probably older in the evolution of PIE nominal inflection –, which form together the Athematic Declension . Den andra eller o-Grammatik är också den tematiska Grammatik, jämfört med resten - och troligen äldre i utvecklingen av PIE nominella inflection - som tillsammans bilda den Athematic Grammatik.

Decl . Förkl.

Stem ending Stam slutar

Nom . Nom.

Genitive Genitiv

1 . 1.

ā , ia / ī / i ā ( ē , ō ) â, ia / ī / i â (Ē, ō)

- Ø -- Ø

- s -- S

2 . 2.

e / o ( Thematic ) e / o (tematiska)

- s -- S

- os , - os ( i ) o , (- ī ) -- Os, - os (i) o, (- ī)

3 . 3.

i, u and Diphthong i, u och Diphthong

m., f.- s , n.- Ø m., f. - s, n. - Ø

- e / ois , - e / ous ,  -(t) ios , -(t) uos -- E / ois, - e / ous, - (t) IOS, - (t) uos

4 . 4.

Sonants & Consonants Sonants & konsonanter

- s , - Ø -- S, - Ø

-( e / o ) s -- (E / o) s

( 5 ) (5)

Heteroclites Heteroclites

- Ø , - r -- Ø, - r

-( e ) n -- (E) n

The Stem of a noun may be found, if a consonant stem, by omitting the case-ending; if a vowel stem, by substituting for the case-ending the characteristic vowel. Stammen av ett substantiv kan hittas om en konsonant stam, genom att ta bort de fall som slutar, om en vokal stam, genom att ersätta för de fall som slutade den karakteristiska vokal.

NOTE. OBS. Most Indo-Europeanists tend to distinguish at least two major types of declension, Thematic and Athematic. De flesta indo-Europavänner tenderar att skilja åtminstone två viktiga typer av deklination, tematiska och Athematic. Thematic nominal stems are formed with a suffix - o - (in vocative - e ), and the stem does not undergo ablaut . Tematiskt nominella stjälkar bildas med ett suffix - o - (i vocative - e), och stammen har inte genomgå avljud. The Athematic stems are more archaic, and they are classified further by their ablaut behaviour: acro-dynamic , protero-dynamic , hystero-dynamic and holo-dynamic , after the positioning of the early PIE accent ( dynamis ) in the paradigm. Den Athematic stjälkar är mer ålderdomliga, och de är klassificerade ytterligare genom deras avljud beteende: Acro-dynamisk, protero-dynamisk, hystero-dynamisk och Holo-dynamisk, efter placering av tidig PIE accent (dynamis) i paradigm.

4.1.3. 4.1.3. The following are General Rules of Declension: Följande är de allmänna bestämmelserna i Substantiv:

a. a. The Nominative singular for animates ends in - s when the stem endings are i , u , ī , ū , Diphthong, Occlusive and Thematic (- os ), or - Ø in ā , a , Sonant and s ; while in the plural - es is general, - s for those in ā , and - os for the Thematic ones. Nominativ singular för animerar slutar i - s när stammen ändelser är i, u, ī, ū, Diphthong, ocklusiv och tematiska (- os), eller - Ø i ā, en, Sonant och s, medan det i pluralis - es är allmänna, - ar för dem i ā, och - os för den tematiska rapporter.

b. b. The Accusative singular of all masculines and feminines ends in - m ; the Accusative plural in - ms . Ackusativ singular av alla masculines och feminines slutar i - m, ackusativ plural i - ms.

c. c. The Vocative singular for animates is always - Ø , and in the plural it is identical to the Nominative. Den Vokativ singular för animerar är alltid - Ø, och i plural är identisk med den engelska.

d. d. The Genitive singular is common to animates and inanimates, it is formed with - s : - s , - es , - os . Den Genitiv singular är gemensamma för animerar och inanimates är det bildats med - s: - s, - es, - os. A very old alternative possibility is extended - os -( i ) o . En mycket gammal alternativ möjlighet är utvidgas - os - (i) o. The Genitive plural is formed in - ōm (also - ēm ), and in - ām in a-stems. I plural genitiv bildas i - ō m (också - ē m), och - ā m i a-stammar.

e. e. The Obliques singular end usually in - i : it can be - i , - ei , - ēi , - oi , - ōi or - āi . Den Obliques singular slutet vanligtvis i - i: det kan vara - i, - EI, - ē I. - oI, - ō i eller - ā i. In the plural, there are two series of declensions, with - bh - (general) and - m - (only Gmc. and Sla.), generally - bhi , - bhis , - bhios , - bhos , and (Gmc., Bal.-Sla.) - mis , - mos , and also some forms in - si (plural mark - s - plus oblique mark - i ), found mainly in Graeco-Aryan dialects. I plural finns det två serier av declensions, med - bh - (allmänt) och - m - (endast Gmc. Och SLA.), I allmänhet - BHI, - bhis, - bhios, - bhos, och (Gmc., Bal .- Sla.) - Mis, - vilja, och även vissa former i - si (plural varumärket - s - plus sned varumärket - i), framför allt i grekisk-ariska dialekter.

f. f.  Inanimates have a syncretic form for Nom.-Ac.-Voc. Inanimates har en synkretisk form för Nom.-Ac.-Voc. in - Ø in Athematic, or - m in Thematic. i - Ø i Athematic, eller - m i temainriktade. The plural forms end in - a or - ā . Pluralis former slut på - en eller - ā.

g. g. All Animates have the same form in the plural for Nom.-Voc., in - es . Alla animerar ha samma form i plural för Nom.-Voc., - Es.

4.1.4. 4.1.4. The so-called Oblique cases – opposed to the Straight ones, Nom.-Acc.-Voc –, are Genitive and the Obliques, ie Dative, Locative, Instrumental and Ablative. Den så kallade Oblique fall - motsats till den Straight sådana, Nom.-Acc.-Voc -, är Genitiv och Obliques, dvs Dativ, Locative, instrumentalt och Ablativ. However, the Ablative seems to have never been independent, but for thematic stems in some dialectal areas. Men den Ablativ verkar aldrig har varit självständiga, men för tematiska stjälkar i vissa dialektala områden. The other three cases were usually just one local case in different contexts (what we call the Oblique), although Late PIE clearly shows an irregular Oblique declension system. De tre övriga fallen har oftast bara en lokal fråga i olika sammanhang (det vi kallar Oblique), även om Late PIE visar tydligt en oregelbunden Oblique deklination.

N OTE 1. N OTE 1. There are some traces – in the Indo-European proto-languages which show divided Oblique cases – that could indicate a possible first division – from a hypothetical  five-case-IE II– between a Dat. Det finns vissa spår - i den indo-europeiska proto-språken som visar delat Oblique fall - som skulle kunna tyda på en möjlig första divisionen - från en hypotetisk fem fall IE II-mellan en Dat. and a Loc.-Ins., and then another, more recent between Loc. och en Loc.-ins. och sedan en annan, mer nyligen mellan Loc. and Ins (see Adrados). och Ins (se Adrados). Languages like Sanskrit or Avestan show 8 cases, while some Italic dialects show up to 8 (cf. Osc. Loc. aasaiin ārā’ , or Ins. cadeis amn ud , ‘ inimicitiae causae’ , preiuatudprīuātō’ , etc.), while Latin shows six and a semisystematic Locative notion; Slavic and Baltic dialects show seven, Mycenaean Greek shows at least six cases, while Koiné Greek shows five, just as Germanic dialects. Språk som sanskrit eller avestiska visa 8 fall, medan vissa Italic dialekter visa upp till 8 (jfr OSC. Loc. Aasai "i ārā", eller Ins. Cadeis AMN ud, "inimicitiae causae", preiuatud "prīuātō", etc.) , Medan latin visar sex och ett semisystematic Locative begreppet, slaviska och baltiska dialekter visar sju, mykenska grekiska visar minst sex fall, medan Koiné grekiska visar fem, precis som germanska dialekter.

N OTE 2. N OTE 2. We know that the splitting and merging processes that affected the Obliques didn't happen uniformly among the different stems, and it didn't happen at the same time in plural and singular. Vi vet att uppdelningen och samgående processer som påverkat Obliques skedde inte jämnt mellan olika stammar, och det skedde inte vid samma tidpunkt i plural och singular. Therefore, there was neither a homogene and definite declension system in IE III, nor in the dialects and languages that followed. Därför finns varken var homogene och bestämd deklination systemet i IE III, eller i den dialekter och språk som följde. From language to language, from stem to stem, differences over the number of cases and its formation developed. Från språk till språk, från stam till stam, skillnader över antalet ärenden och hur de bildas utvecklas. Firstly syncretism obscured the cases, and thereafter the entire system collapsed: after the time when cases broke up in others, as in most modern Slavic languages, another time came when all cases merged or were completely lost: so today in Romance languages, in Germanic like English, or in Slavic like Bulgarian. Först synkretism dämpat de fall och därefter hela systemet kollapsat: efter den tidpunkt då fall bröt upp i andra, som i de flesta moderna slaviska språk, en annan tid kom när alla fall sammanslagna eller helt förlorat: det i dag i romanska språk, germanska gillar engelska, eller i slaviska gillar bulgariska. However, Modern Indo-European needs to systematize to some extent this diversity, based on the obvious underlying old system, which usually results in 6-case paradigms (normally with Dat.-Abl. and Loc.-Ins.) in most inflected forms. Men Moderna indo-europeisk behöver systematisera i viss mån denna mångfald, baserat på de uppenbara bakomliggande gamla systemet, vilket oftast resulterar i 6-fallet paradigmer (normalt med dat.-ABL. Och Loc.-Ins.) I de flesta böjningsformer som .

Nominal Desinences (Summary) Nominell Desinences (Summary)

Singular Singular

Plural Plural

NOM . NOM.

- s , - Ø , ( n . Them - m ) -- S, - Ø, (n. Them - m)

m., f . m, f. - es , n. - -- Es, n. -

ACC . ACC.

- m /- m ̥ -- M / - m ̥

m., f. - ms /- m ̥ s ; n. - m., f. - MS / - m ̥ s; n. -

VOC . VOC.

- Ø -- Ø

m., f . m, f. - es , n. - -- Es, n. -

GEN . GEN.

-( e / o ) s ; -( e / o ) s ( i ) o -- (E / o) s; - (e / o) s (i) o

- m (dial - ēm ) -- m (dial - ē m)

OBL . Obl.

- i - (general Obl. mark) -- I - (allmänna obl. Märke)

- bh - i -, (dialectal - m - i -); - s - i / u -- Bh - I -, (dialectal - m - i -), - s - i / u

DAT . DAT.

- ei -- EI

- bh ( i ) os , (dial. - mos ) -- Bh (i) os, (dial. - mos)

LOC . Loc.

- i -- I

- su / i -- SU / i

INS . INS.

- e , - bhi -- E, - BHI

- bhis , (dial. - mis );- ōis (Them.) -- Bhis, (dial. - MIS); - ō är (Them.)

ABL . ABL.

- ( e / o ) s ; - ē d /- ōd /- ā d -- (E / o) s; - Ē d / - ō d / - â d

- bh ( i ) os , (dial. - mos ) -- Bh (i) os, (dial. - mos)

4.2. 4,2. First Declension Eufonium

4.2.1. 4.2.1. First Declension Eufonium

1. 1. They are usually Animate nouns and end in ā , and ia / ī / iā , and also rarely in ē , ō .  Those in ā are very common, generally feminine in nouns and always in adjectives. De är vanligtvis Animera svenska och avslutas i ā, och Ia / ī / i ā, och dessutom sällan i ē, ō. De som & # 257 och är mycket vanliga, oftast kvinnliga i svenska och alltid i adjektiv. Those in ia / ī / iā are always feminine and are also used to make feminines in the adjectival Motion . De som ia / ī / i ā alltid är feminina och används också för att göra feminines i adjektivisk Motion. Those in ō and ē are feminine only in lesser used words. De som ō och ē är feminina bara i mindre använda ord. Those in a are etymologically identical to the Neuter plural in Nom.-Acc.-Voc. De som har en är etymologically identisk med neutrum plural i Nom.-Acc.-Voc.

a-Declension Paradigm a-Deklination Paradigm

Animate Animera

Inanimate Inanimate

NOM . NOM.

- Ø -- Ø

- Ø -- Ø

ACC . ACC.

- m -- M

VOC . VOC.

- Ø -- Ø

GEN . GEN.

- s -- S

DAT . DAT.

- i [ <* e i ] -- I [<* e i]

LOC . Loc.

- i -- I

INS . INS.

- Ø , - bhi , (- mi ) -- Ø, - BHI, (- mi)

ABL . ABL.

- ā d , (- s ) -- Â d, (- s)

MIE First Declension corresponds loosely to the Latin First Declension (cf. Lat. rosa , rosae , or puella , puellae ), and to the Ancient Greek Alpha Declension (cf. Gk. χώρ , χώρ ς, or τ μή, τ μ ς) . MIE eufonium motsvarar löst till latin eufonium (jfr Lat. Rosa, rosae, eller flicka, puellae), och att det gamla grekiska Alpha Deklination (jfr GK. Χώρ ᾱ, χώρ ᾱ ς, eller τ μή, τ μς).

NOTE. The entire stem could have been reduced to IE a , because this is the origin of the whole stem system before IE III, with an original ending *- ( e ) h 2 . OBS. Hela stamceller hade kunnat minskas till IE ett, eftersom detta är ursprunget till hela stam systemet innan IE III, med en ursprunglig slutar *- (e) h 2.

3. 3. It is therefore identical to those nouns in r , n , s of the Fourth Declension, but for some details in vocalism: the Gen. has an - s and not - es /- os ; the difference between Nom. Det är därför identiska med de svenska i r, n, ar i fjärde Grammatik, men för vissa detaljer i vocalism: Gen har en - s och inte - es / - os; skillnaden mellan Nom. and Voc. och VOC. is that of - &amp;#257; and - a . är - &#257; och - en. The zero - grade of the Nom.-Acc.-Voc. De noll - kvalitet av den Nom.-Acc.-Voc. in ia / &amp;#299; stems is different from the Gen. in - i&amp;#257; . i ia / &#299; stjälkar är olika från Gen in - i &#257;.

4.2.2. 4.2.2. First Declension in Examples Eufonium i Exempel

1. 1. Nominative Singular in - Ø ; as, ékwā 73 , mare , sén ā 79 , old . Nominativ Singular in - Ø; som, ékwā 73, mare, sén â 79, gamla.

Example of ia / &amp;#299; stems are pótni / pótn&amp;#299; 44 , lady , w&amp;#314;qi / w&amp;#314;q&amp;#299; , she-wolf , djéwi / djéw&amp;#299; , goddess (maybe also Lat. gall&amp;#299; in the later extended gall&amp;#299;na , r&amp;#275;g&amp;#299; in reg&amp;#299;na , etc.), as well as Pres.Part. Exempel på ia / &#299; stjälkar är pótni / pótn &#299; 44, dam, m &#314; QI / w &#314; q &#299; hon-Wolf, djéwi / djéw & , # 299,, gudinna (kanske också Lat. Galla &#299; i den senare förlängdes galla &#299; na, r &#275; g &#299; i förordn &#299; na, etc.), som och Pres.Part. feminines, as príjonti / príjont&amp;#299; , “ who loves ”, friend , wésnti / wésnt&amp;#299; , “ who drives ”, driver, etc. feminines, som príjonti / príjont &#299; ", som älskar", vän, wésnti / wésnt &#299; ", som driver", förare etc.

Those in &amp;#275; , &amp;#333; , which aren't found very often, can present an - s as well; as in Latin bhídhēs (Lat. fides , but also O.Lat. fidis ), trust , spéki&amp;#275;s , species , etc. De som &#275;, &#333;, som inte funnit mycket ofta, kan presentera en - s och, som på latin bhídhēs (Lat. tro, men även O. Lat. FIDIS), förtroende spéki &#275; s, arter etc.

Nouns in &amp;#257; can also rarely present forms in a ; as in Gk. Ord i &#257; kan också sällan nuvarande former i en, som i GK. Lesb. Dika . Lesb. Dika.

2. 2. Accusative Singular in - m ; as, ékw&amp;#257;m , pótni m / pótn&amp;#299;m , bhídh&amp;#275;m . Se efter i - m, som, ékw &#257; m, pótni m / pótn &#299; m, bhídh &#275; m.

3. 3. Vocative Singular in - Ø. It is normally identical to the Nominative, but disambiguation could happen with distinct vowel grades, ie Nom. Vokativ Singular in - Ø. Det är normalt sett identisk med den engelska, men inte skulle kunna hända med distinkta vokal betyg, dvs Nom. in - &amp;#257; , Voc. i - &#257;, VOC. in - a . i - a.

4. 4. Genitive Singular in - s ; as, ékw&amp;#257;s , sén&amp;#257;s . Genitiv Singular i - s, som, ékw &#257; s, sén &#257; s.

The theme in ia / &amp;#299; / i&amp;#257; produces a Genitive Singular in - &amp;#257;s ; as, pótni&amp;#257;s . Temat i ia / &#299; / i &#257; producerar en Genitiv Singular in - &#257; s, som, pótni &#257; s.

5. 5. Dative-Ablative Singular in - ā i , probably from an original Dat. Dativ-Ablativ Singular in - â i, troligen från ett original Dat. - ei ending. -- Ei slutar.

There is also a form - ei for themes in &amp;#275; and in i&amp;#257; . Det finns också en form - ei för teman i &#275; och i &#257;.

6. 6. Locative in - ā i , Instrumental in - &amp;#257; , - &amp;#257; - bhi , - &amp;#257; - mi . Locative i - â i, Instrumental in - &#257;, - &#257; - BHI, - &#257; - mi.

f. ekw ā f. ekw â

f. potnia/potn ī f. potnia / potn ī

f. speki ē - f. speki Ē --

adj. adj. f. cowij ā f. cowij â

NOM . NOM.

ékw ā ékw â

pótni / pótn ī pótni / pótn ī

spéki ē s spéki Ē s

cowij cowij

ACC . ACC.

ékw ā m ékw â m

pótni m / pótn ī m pótni m / pótn ī m

spéki ē m spéki Ē m

cowij m cowij m

VOC . VOC.

ékw ékw

pótni / pótn ī pótni / pótn ī

spéki ē spéki Ē

cowij cowij

GEN . GEN.

ékw ā s ékw â s

pótni ā s pótni â s

spéki ē s spéki Ē s

cowij s cowij s

DAT . DAT.

ékw ā i ékw â i

pótni ā i pótni â i

spékiei spékiei

cowij i cowij i

LOC . Loc.

ékw ā i ékw â i

pótni ā i pótni â i

spékiei spékiei

cowij i cowij i

INS . INS.

ékw ā ékw â

pótni ā pótni â

spéki ē spéki Ē

cowij cowij

ABL . ABL.

ékw ā d ékw â d

pótni ā s pótni â s

spéki ē d spéki Ē d

cowij d cowij d

4.2.3. 4.2.3. The Plural in the First Declension Pluralis i eufonium

1. 1. The following table presents the plural paradigm of the a-Declension . I följande tabell presenteras plural paradigm av a-Grammatik.

NOM . NOM.

- s [ <*- e s ] -- S [<*- e s]

ACC . ACC.

- ms -- Ms

VOC . VOC.

- s -- S

GEN . GEN.

- m -- M

DAT .- ABL . DAT .- ABL.

- bh ( i ) os (- mos ) -- Bh (i) os (- mos)

LOC . Loc.

- su / i -- SU / i

INS . INS.

- bhis (- mis ) -- Bhis (- MIS)

2. 2. The Nominative-Vocative Plural in - s : ékw&amp;#257;s , néw&amp;#257;s , cowij s . Nominativ-Vokativ Plural i - s: ékw &#257; s, néw &#257; s, cowij s.

This form could obviously be confused with the Genitive Singular. Denna blankett kan uppenbarligen förväxlas med Genitiv Singular. In equivocal contexts we change preferably the accent ( ekw s , ekw ms , ekw m ). I tvetydiga sammanhang vi byter helst det uttal (ekw s, ekw ms, ekw m).

3. 3. The Accusative Plural in - ms : ékw&amp;#257;ms , néw&amp;#257;ms . Den här artikeln i - ms: ékw &#257; ms, néw &#257; ms.

4. 4. The Genitive Plural in - m : ékw&amp;#257;m , new m . I plural genitiv i - m: ékw &#257; m, ny m.

5. 5. The Dative and Ablative Plural in - bhos , - bhios (dial. - mos ); as, ékw&amp;#257;bh ( i ) os , ékw&amp;#257;mos . Dativ och Ablativ Plural in - bhos, - bhios (dial. - Vilja), som, ékw &#257; bh (i) os, ékw &#257; kunderna.

6. 6. The Locative Plural in - su (also - si , - se ); as, ékw&amp;#257;si , ékw&amp;#257;su . Den Locative Plural i - SU (också - si, - SE), som, ékw &#257; si, ékw &#257; su.

6. 6. The Instrumental Plural in - bhis (dial. - mis ); as, ékw&amp;#257;bhis , ékw&amp;#257;mis . Den Instrumental Plural in - bhis (dial. - MIS), som, ékw &#257; bhis, ékw &#257; mis.

The Obliques have also special forms Gk. Den Obliques har också särskilda blanketter GK. - &amp;#257;isi , - ais , Lat. -- &#257; ISI, - ais, Lat. - ais ; as, Lat. ros i s <* rosais . -- Ais, som, Lat. Ros i s <* Rosais.

f. ékwā f. ékwā

f. potnia / potn ī f. potnia / potn ī

NOM . NOM.

ékwā s ékwā s

pótnias / pótn īs pótnias / pótn īs

ACC . ACC.

ékwām s ékwām s

pótniams / pótn īms pótniams / pótn īms

VOC . VOC.

ékwā s ékwā s

pótnias / pótn īs pótnias / pótn īs

GEN . GEN.

ekw m ekw m

potni m potni m

DAT . DAT.

ékwā bhios ékwā bhios

pótniabhios pótniabhios

LOC . Loc.

ékwā si ékwā si

pótniasu pótniasu

INS . INS.

ékwā bhis ékwā bhis

pótniabhis pótniabhis

ABL . ABL.

ékwā bhios ékwā bhios

pótn iabhios pótn iabhios


4.3. 4,3. Second Declension Vin

4.3.1. 4.3.1. Second Declension Vin

1. 1.  The Stem of nouns of the Second Declension ends in e / o , and they are usually called Thematic . Den Stam av substantiv av vin slutar i e / o, och de är vanligen kallade temainriktade. They can be animates and inanimates, as well as adjectives. De kan animerar och inanimates, liksom adjektiv. The inanimates have an ending - m only in Nom.-Acc.-Voc. Den inanimates har en sluttid - m endast i Nom.-Acc.-Voc. The animates, with a Nominative in - s , are generally masculine in nouns and adjectives, but there are also feminine nouns and animate adjectives in - os , probably remains of the old indistinctness of declension. De animerar, med en Nominativ i - s, i allmänhet är maskulin i substantiv och adjektiv, men det finns också feminina substantiv och adjektiv animera i - os, troligen resterna av den gamla indistinctness av deklination.

2. 2. MIE Second Declension is equivalent to the Second Declension in Latin (cf. Lat. dominus , domin&amp;#299; , or uinum , uin&amp;#299; ), and to the Omicron Declension in Greek (cf. Gk. λόγος, λόγου, or δ ρον, δ ρου) . MIE vin är likvärdig med vin på latin (jfr Lat. Dominus, Domin &#299; eller uinum, uin &#299;), och till Omicron Substantiv på grekiska (jfr GK. Λόγος, λόγου, eller δ ῶ ρον, δρου).

o-Declension Paradigm o-Deklination Paradigm

Animate Animera

Inanimate Inanimate

NOM . NOM.

- os -- Os

- om -- Om

ACC . ACC.

- om -- Om

VOC . VOC.

- e -- E

GEN . GEN.

- os , - os ( i ) o , (- ī ) -- Os, - os (i) o, (- ī)

DAT . DAT.

- ō i [ <* o e i ] -- Ō i [<* o e i]

LOC . Loc.

- ei /- oi -- Ei / - oI

INS . INS.

- ē /- ō -- Ē / - ō

ABL . ABL.

- ēd /- ō d -- Ēd / - ō d

NOTE. OBS. This model could indeed have been written without the initial vowel - o -, given that the probable origin of this vowel is the ending vowel of some thematic stems, while other, primitive athematic stems were reinterpreted thereafter and this vowel was added to stem by way of analogy. Denna modell skulle kunna skrivas utan den inledande vokal - o - med tanke på att den troliga orsaken till denna vokal är den avslutande vokalen i vissa tematiska stjälkar, medan andra, primitiv Athematic stjälkar var omtolkas därefter och detta vokal lades till stam genom analogt. So, for thematic stems, as wlqo -, this paradigm could be read Nom. Så, för tematiska stjälkar, som wlqo - detta paradigm skulle kunna läsa Nom. - s , Acc. -- S, Acc. - m , Voc. -- M, VOC. - e , Gen. - s , - sio , - so , - ī , and so on. -- E, Gen - s, - sio, - ja, - ī, och så vidare.

3. 3. The Nominative and the Genitive in - os can be confused. Nominativ och genitiv i - os kan förväxlas. This can only be solved with lengthenings, as in Gen. - os - io or os - o . Detta kan bara lösas med lengthenings, som i Gen - OS - io eller OS - o.

4.3.2. 4.3.2. Second Declension in Examples Vin i Exempel

1. 1. Nominative Singular Animate in - os ; as in w&amp;#314;qos , wolf , dóm&amp;#363;nos , lord , adj. c wós , alive . Nominativ Singular Animera i - os, som i w &#314; QOS, varg, dóm &#363; oss, Herre, adj. C wós, levande.

2. 2. Accusative Singular Animate in - om ; as in w&amp;#314;qom , dóm&amp;#363;nom , c wóm . Ackusativ Singular Animera i - om, som i w &#314; Qom, dóm &#363; nom, c wóm.

3. 3. Vocative Singular Animate in - e ; as in w&amp;#314;qe , dóm&amp;#363;ne , c . Vokativ efter Animera i - e, som i w &#314; qe, dóm &#363; ne, c wé.

5. 5. The Nom.-Acc.-Voc. Den Nom.-Acc.-Voc. Sg. Sg. Inanimate in - om ; as in jugóm 5 , joke , adj. néwom , new , mrwóm , dead . Inanimate i - om, som i jugóm 5, skämt, adj. Néwom, nya, mrwóm, döda.

4. 4. Genitive Singular in - os , - osio , - e / oso (also - &amp;#299; ); as in w&amp;#314;qosio , mrwós , dóm&amp;#363;n&amp;#299; . Genitiv Singular in - os, - Osio, - e / OSO (också - &#299;), som i w &#314; qosio, mrwós, dóm &#363; n &#299;.

NOTE. OBS. The original form - os is rare, as the Genitive had to be distinguished from the Nominative. De ursprungliga form - OS är sällsynta, som Genitiv måste skiljas från den Nominativ. This disambiguation happens, as already said, by alternatively lengthening the ending or changing it altogether. Detta disambiguation händer, som sagt, genom alternativt förlänga slutar eller byter den helt. The o-Declension is probably recent in IE III – even though it happened already in Anatolian – and that's why it is homogeneous in most IE dialects, without variations in vocalism or accent. O-Grammatik är förmodligen senare i IE III - trots att det hände redan i Anatolian - och det är därför det är likartade i de flesta IE dialekter, utan variationer i vocalism eller uttal.

6. 6. Dative Singular in - &amp;#333;i , - &amp;#333; : w&amp;#314;q&amp;#333;i , dóm&amp;#363;n&amp;#333;i , néw&amp;#333;i , mrw . Dativ Singular in - &#333; I. - &#333;: w &#314; q &#333; i, dóm &#363; n &#333; i, néw &#333; i, MRW ṓ.

7. 7. Locative Singular in - oi , - ei : w&amp;#314;qoi , dóm&amp;#363;noi , néwoi , mrwói . Locative Singular in - oI, - ei: w &#314; qoi, dóm &#363; noi, néwoi, mrwói.

8. 8. Instrumental Singular in - &amp;#333; : w&amp;#314;q&amp;#333; , c w , néw&amp;#333; , mrw . Instrumental Singular in - &#333;: w &#314; q &#333;, c w ṓ, néw &#333;, MRW ṓ.

9. 9. The Ablative Singular is formed in - &amp;#333;d , and sometimes in - &amp;#275;d : w&amp;#314;q&amp;#333;d , c w d , néw&amp;#333;d . Den Ablativ Singular bildas i - &#333; d, och ibland i - &#275; d: w &#314; q &#333; d, c w d, néw &#333; d.

m. wlqo m. wlqo

n. jugo n. verktyg

NOM . NOM.

w ĺ qos w ĺ QOS

jugóm jugóm

ACC . ACC.

w ĺ qom w ĺ Qom

jugóm jugóm

VOC . VOC.

w ĺ qe w ĺ qe

jugóm jugóm

GEN . GEN.

w ĺ qosio w ĺ qosio

jugós jugós

DAT . DAT.

w ĺ q ō i w ĺ q ō i

jug i krus i

LOC . Loc.

w ĺ qoi w ĺ qoi

jugói jugói

INS . INS.

w ĺ q ō w ĺ q ō

jug krus

ABL . ABL.

w ĺ q ō d w ĺ q ō d

jug d krus d

4.5.3. 4.5.3. The Plural in the Second Declension Pluralis i vin

1. 1. The Thematic Plural system is usually depicted as follows: Det tematiska Plural system avbildas ofta på följande sätt:

Animate Animera

Inanimate Inanimate

NOM . NOM.

- ō s [ <*- o e s ] , (- oi ) -- Ō s [<*- o e s], (- oI)

- --

ACC . ACC.

- oms -- Oms

VOC . VOC.

- ō s , (- oi ) -- Ō s, (- oI)

GEN . GEN.

- m , (- ē m ) -- m, (- Ē m)

DAT .- ABL . DAT .- ABL.

- obh ( i ) os , (- omos ) -- Obh (i) os, (- omos)

LOC . Loc.

- oisu / i -- Oisu / i

INS . INS.

- is -- är

NOTE. OBS. The ending - ō s is usually considered as derived from the plural ending - es , ie *- o -( s )- es > - ō s . Det slutade - ō s vanligtvis betraktas som härrör från pluralis slutar - es, dvs *- o - (s) - es> - ō s.

2. 2. The Nominative-Vocative Animate Plural in - &amp;#333;s ; as, w&amp;#314;q&amp;#333;s , dóm&amp;#363;n&amp;#333;s , w rōs . Nominativ-Vokativ Animera Plural in - &#333; s, som, w &#314; q &#333; s, dóm &#363; n &#333; s, w rōs.

3. 3. The Accusative Animate Plural in - oms ; as, w&amp;#314;qoms , dóm&amp;#363;noms , mrtóms . Ackusativ Animera Plural in - OMS; som, w &#314; qoms, dóm &#363; namn, mrtóms.

4. 4. The Nom.-Voc.-Acc. Den Nom.-Voc.-Acc. Inanimate Plural in - &amp;#257; , - a ; as, jug / jugá , néwa , mrwá . Inanimate Plural in - &#257;, - en, som, krus / jugá, néwa, mrwá.

5. 5. The Genitive Plural in - &amp;#333;m /- om (and - &amp;#275;m ); as, w&amp;#314;q&amp;#333;m , dóm&amp;#363;n&amp;#333;m , ceiw m , jug m . I plural genitiv i - &#333; m / - om (och - &#275; m), som, w &#314; q &#333; m, dóm &#363; n &#333; m , Ceiw m, krus m.

6. 6. The Instrumental-Locative Plural in - ois /- oisi ; - &amp;#333;is /- &amp;#333;isi , and also, as in the other declensions, Obliques in - bhis , - bhos , - bhios (- mis , - mos ); as, w&amp;#314;q isi , w rōis , néwoisu , mrw is . Den Instrumental-Locative Plural in - ois / - oisi; - &#333; är / - &#333; ISI, och även, som i de övriga declensions, Obliques i - bhis, - bhos, - bhios (- mis , - Vilja), som, w &#314; q ISI, w rōis, néwoisu, MRW är.

m. wlqo - m. wlqo --

n. jugo - n. verktyg --

NOM . NOM.

w ĺ q ō s w ĺ q ō s

jugá jugá

ACC . ACC.

w ĺ q ō ms w ĺ q ō ms

jugá jugá

VOC . VOC.

w ĺ q ō s w ĺ q ō s

jugá jugá

GEN . GEN.

w ĺ q ō m w ĺ q ō m

jug ṓm krus ṓm

DAT . DAT.

w ĺ q obhios w ĺ q obhios

jugóbhios jugóbhios

LOC . Loc.

w ĺ q ōisi w ĺ q ōisi

jugóisu jugóisu

INS . INS.

w ĺ q ō is w ĺ q ō är

jug ó is krus ó är

ABL . ABL.

w ĺ q obhios w ĺ q obhios

jugóbhios jugóbhios

4.4. 4,4. Third Declension Tredje Substantiv

4.4.1. 4.4.1. Third Declension Paradigm Tredje Deklination Paradigm

1. 1. Third Declension nouns end in i , u (also &amp;#299; , &amp;#363; ) and Diphthong. Tredje Deklination substantiv slutar på i, u (även &#299;, &#363;) och Diphthong. The Nominative ending is - s . Nominativ slutar är - s.

2. 2. This declension usually corresponds to Latin nouns of the Third Declension in - i (cf. Lat. ciuis , ciuis , or pars , partis ), and of the Fourth Declension in - u (cf. Lat. corn&amp;#363; , corn&amp;#363;s , or portus , port&amp;#363;s ). Detta försöker vanligtvis motsvarar latinska substantiv på tredje Substantiv på - i (jfr Lat. Ciuis, ciuis eller pars, del) och i fjärde Deklination i - u (jfr Lat. Corn &#363;, majs & # 363; s, eller Portus, hamn &#363; s).

i/u-Declension Paradigm i / u-Deklination Paradigm

Animate Animera

Inanimate Inanimate

NOM . NOM.

- s -- S

- Ø -- Ø

ACC . ACC.

- m -- M

VOC . VOC.

- Ø -- Ø

GEN . GEN.

- s -- S

DAT . DAT.

- ei -- EI

LOC . Loc.

- Ø, - i -- Ø, - i

INS . INS.

- &amp;#299; /- &amp;#363; , (- bhi ) -- &#299; / - &#363;, (- BHI)

ABL . ABL.

- s -- S

NOTE. OBS. Reduplication or combination with the alternating endings - i , - ei /- oi and - u , - eu /- ou , was a common resort in the attested dialects that distinguished Dat. Reduplication eller kombination med alternerande ändelser - I, - ei / - oI och - u, - EU / - ou, var en gemensam utväg i bestyrkas dialekter som skiljer Dat. and Loc. och Loc. in this declension, as in - i - ei , - ei - ei , - eu - ei , and so on, to distinguish similar forms. i denna deklination, som i - I - ei, - EI - ei, - EU - ei, och så vidare, att skilja liknande former. A common distinction of Loc. En vanlig åtskillnad av Loc. - i , Dat. -- I, Dat. - ei , was known to most dialects of Late PIE, while a general Instrumental in lengthened - &amp;#299; , - &amp;#363; (from Ins. ending *- eh 1 ) was commonly used; the Ablative, when it appears, shows the same declension as the Genitive. -- Ei, var känd för de flesta dialekter sen PIE, medan en allmän Instrumental i förlängts - &#299;, - &#363; (från Ins. Slutade *- eh 1) var vanligt, Ablativ, när det visas, visar samma uttal som Genitiv.

3. 3. The animates in i and u are masculine or feminine (indifferent to the distinction in adjectives); those in &amp;#299; and &amp;#363; , always feminine. De animerar i i-och u är maskulina eller feminina (likgiltig för skillnaden i artikeln), de i &#299; och &#363;, alltid feminina.

4. 4. The - s can indicate Nominative and Genitive: the distinction is made through the full-grade of the vowel before the declension, ie Gen. - ei - s for i , - ou - s for u – but for those in - ti , - tu (type II), vi De - s kan tyda Nominativ och genitiv: distinktionen görs genom full kvalitet av den vokal före deklination, dvs Gen - EI - n I. - ou - n u - men för de i - ti, -- tu (typ II), VI

NOTE. OBS. The Vocative of the animates is the same as the Nom.-Acc.-Voc. Den Vokativ av animerar är samma som Nom.-Acc.-Voc. of the inanimates. av inanimates. In nouns differentiation isn’t necessary, because they have different stem vowels; in adjectives, however, a Vocative singular animate - i can be an homophone with Nom.-Acc.-Voc. I artikeln differentiering är inte nödvändigt, eftersom de har olika stam vokaler, i artikeln är dock en Vokativ singular animera - Jag kan vara en homophone med Nom.-Acc.-Voc. singular neuter - i ; as egmVoc. albhí , n.Acc. albhí . singular neutrum - i, som egmVoc. albhí, n.Acc. albhí. This is, though, a rare case, in which the context is generally enough for disambiguation. Detta är dock en sällsynt fall, där det i allmänhet är nog för disambiguation.

4.4.2. 4.4.2. In i, u I i, u

1. 1. Nominative Singular Animate in - s ; as in ówis [149] , ewe , nóqtis 124 , night , ghóstis 26 , guest , sū́nus 130 , son (cf. also Gk. sújus ), médhus , mead , egnís , fire , mánus , hand , adj. sw&amp;#257;dús , sweet , etc. Nominativ Singular Animera i - s, som i ówis [149], ewe, nóqtis 124, natt, ghóstis 26, gäst, sūnus 130, son (jfr också GK. Sújus), médhus, mjöd, egnís, brand, mánus, hand , Adj. Sw &#257; dús, söt, etc.

2. 2. Accusative Singular Animate in - m ; as in ówim , nóqtim , ghóstim , s&amp;#363; ́ num , mánum , etc. Ackusativ Singular Animera i - m, som i ówim, nóqtim, ghóstim, s &#363; num, mánum etc.

3. 3. Vocative Singular Animate in - ei or - i , - eu or - u ; as in ówei - ówi , s&amp;#363; ́ neu / s&amp;#363; ́ nou - s&amp;#363; ́ nu , sometimes the same Nominative form, as systematically in Latin (cf. Lat. hostis ). Vokativ efter Animera i - ei eller - i, - EU eller - och, som i ówei - ówi, s &#363; neu / s &#363; igen - s &#363; nu, ibland samma Nominativ form, som systematiskt i latin (jfr Lat. hostis).

4. The Nom.-Acc.-Voc. 4. Nom.-Acc.-Voc. Singular Inanimate in - i , - u ; as in móri , pék [150] , médhu , sw&amp;#257;dú 123 . Singular Inanimate i - i, - och, som i móri, pék [150], médhu, sw &#257; dú 123.

5. Genitive Singular in - eis (- ois ) or - ( t ) ios , - eus (- ous ), - ( t ) uos ; as in egnéis [151] , s&amp;#363; ́ nous , owéis (also dial. ówios ), mánous , pékwos , adj. sw&amp;#257;déus . Genitiv Singular in - eis (- ois) eller - (t) IOS, - EUS (- ous), - (t) uos, som i egnéis [151], s &#363; nous, owéis (även dial. Ówios ), Mánous, pékwos, adj. Sw &#257; déus.

6. Dative Singular in -( ej ) ei , -( ew ) ei , - ou , also with long vowel, - &amp;#275;i , - &amp;#333;u , egnéi , nóqtei, owéi , etc. Dativ Singular i - (ej) ei, - (Ew) ei, - ou, även med lång vokal, - &#275; I. - &#333; u, egnéi, nóqtei, owéi etc.

7. Locative Singular in - ( &amp;#275; ) i , - ( &amp;#275; ) u , Instrumental in - &amp;#299; , - &amp;#363; or dial. Locative en i - (&#275;) i, - (&#275;) u, Instrumental in - &#299;, - &#363; eller ratten. - bhi ; as s&amp;#363; ́ n ( &amp;#275; ) u , owí , ow , etc. -- BHI, som S &#363; n (&#275;) u, owí, aj etc.

Type I Typ I

Type II Typ II

Neuter Neutrum

m. s ū nu - m. s ū nu --

f. owi - f. owi --

f. noq - ti - f. noq - ti --

m. sen ā - tu - m. sen â - tu --

n. peku - n. peku --

n. mori - n. mori --

NOM . NOM.

s &amp;#363; ́ nus s &#363; nus

ówis ówis

nóqtis nóqtis

sen tus sen tus

péku péku

móri móri

ACC . ACC.

s &amp;#363; ́ num s &#363; num

ówim ówim

nóqtim nóqtim

sen tum sen Tum

péku péku

móri móri

VOC . VOC.

s &amp;#363; ́ nu s &#363; nu

ówi ówi

nóqti nóqti

sen tu sen tu

péku péku

móri móri

GEN . GEN.

s &amp;#363; ́ nous s &#363; nous

owéis owéis

nóqtios nóqtios

sen tuos sen tuos

pékeus pékeus

mórois mórois

DAT . DAT.

s &amp;#363; ́ nou s &#363; igen

owéi owéi

nóqtei nóqtei

sen tou sen tou

pékou pékou

moréi moréi

LOC . Loc.

s ū s ū

owí owí

noqtí noqtí

sen tu sen tu

pekú pekú

morí morí

INS . INS.

s &amp;#363; ́ n &amp;#363; s &#363; n &#363;

ow ow

nóqt &amp;#299; nóqt &#299;

sen t &amp;#363; sen t &#363;

pék &amp;#363; pék &#363;

mór &amp;#299; mór &#299;

ABL . ABL.

s &amp;#363; ́ nous s &#363; nous

owéis owéis

nóqtios nóqtios

sen tuos sen tuos

pékeus pékeus

mórois mórois

The Strong Type Den starka Typ

1. 1. Its inflection is similar to that of i , u , but they have no alternating vowels before the declension, and the &amp;#299; and &amp;#363; are substituted before vowel by - ij , - uw . Dess inflection ett liknande sätt som i, u, men de har inga växlar vokaler före deklination, och &#299; och &#363; ersätts före vokal av - ij, - uw. They are always feminine, and they cannot be inanimates nor adjectives. De är alltid feminina, och de kan inte inanimates eller adjektiv. They are mostly PIE roots, and found mainly in Indo-Iranian. De är mestadels PIE rötter, och som främst påträffas i indo-iranska.

f. bhr&amp;#363; - [152] f. bhr &#363; - [152]

f. dn g h &amp;#363; - 3 f. dn g h &#363; - 3

f. swekr &amp;#363; - 132 f. swekr &#363; - 132

f. dh ī - f. dh ī --

NOM . NOM.

bhr ū s bhr ū s

d ńg h ū s d ńg h ū s

swekr ū ́ s swekr ū s

dh ī s dh ī s

ACC . ACC.

bhr ū m bhr ū m

d ńg h ū m d ńg h ū m

swekr ū ́ m swekr ū m

dhíj m dhíj m

VOC . VOC.

bhr &amp;#363; bhr &#363;

d ńg h &amp;#363; d ńg h &#363;

swekr ū ́ swekr ū

dh ī dh ī

GEN . GEN.

bhruwés bhruwés

d ng huwós d ng huwós

swekr u wés swekr u wés

dhijós dhijós

DAT . DAT.

bhruwéi bhruwéi

d ng huwóu d ng huwóu

swekr uw éi swekr uw etta

dhijéi dhijéi

LOC . Loc.

bhruw í bhruw í

d ng huw í d ng Huw í

swekr uw í swekr uw í

dhij í dhij í

INS . INS.

bhr ū́ ( bhi ) bhr ū (BHI)

d ng h &amp;#363;&amp;#769; ( bhi ) d ng h &#363; &#769; (BHI)

swekr &amp;#363;&amp;#769; ( bhi ) swekr &#363; &#769; (BHI)

dhij ( bhi ) dhij (BHI)

ABL . ABL.

bhruwés bhruwés

d ng huwós d ng huwós

swekr uw é s swekr uw é s

dhijós dhijós

4.4.3. 4.4.3. In Diphthong I Diphthong

1. 1. There are long diphthongs &amp;#257;u , &amp;#275;u , &amp;#333;u , &amp;#275;i , which sometimes present short vowels, as well as other endings without diphthong, ie, &amp;#257; , &amp;#275; , &amp;#333; . Det finns långa diphthongs &#257; u, &#275; u, &#333; u, &#275; i, som ibland nuvarande korta vokaler, liksom andra ändelser utan diftong, dvs, & # 257,, &#275;, &#333;.

NOTE. OBS. The last are probably remains of older diphthongs, from IE II. Det sista är förmodligen fortfarande av äldre diphthongs, från IE II. Therefore, even though from the point of view of Late Proto-Indo-European there are only stems with variants ā u , ē u , ē , etc, these can all be classified as Diphthong endings, because the original stems were formed as diphthongs in the language history. Därför, även om ur av Late Proto-Indo-European det finns bara stjälkar med varianter â u, Ē u, Ē, osv, dessa kan alla klassificeras som Diphthong ändelser, eftersom den ursprungliga stammar bildades som diphthongs i språk historia. This kind of irregularities is usual in today's languages, as it was already four millennia ago. Denna typ av oegentligheter som är vanligt i dagens språk, eftersom det redan var fyra årtusenden sedan.

In zero grade Genitives there are forms with - i - or - ij - or - u - or - uw -, depending on the diphthongs. I noll-klass Genitives det finns former med - i - eller - ij - eller - och - eller - uw -, beroende på diphthongs.

m. u - 117 m. u - 117

m. dj ē u - 63 m. dj Ē u - 63

NOM . NOM.

c us c oss

dj us dj oss

ACC . ACC.

m m

dj ē m / dij m dj Ē m / DIJ m

VOC . VOC.

c ó u c ó u

dj é u dj é u

GEN . GEN.

c ó us c ó oss

diwós diwós

DAT . DAT.

c o wéi c o wéi

diwéi diwéi

LOC . Loc.

c o c o

dj é wi / diwí dj é wi / diwí

INS . INS.

c ó &amp;#363; c ó &#363;

djé &amp;#363; djé &#363;

ABL . ABL.

c ó us c ó oss

diwós diwós

NOTE. OBS.  These are some IE words, usually secondary formations – especially found in Greek – in - eus , - euos , as in Av. b&amp;#257;z&amp;#257;us , Arm, Gk. Basileus , which are also so declined. Det är några IE ord, vanligen sekundära formationer - i synnerhet i grekiska - I - EUS, - euos, som i Av. B &#257; z &#257; oss, Arm, GK. Basileus, som också är så avvisad.

4.4.4. 4.4.4. The Plural in the Third Declension Pluralis i Tredje Substantiv

1. 1. The following table depicts the general plural system, common to the Fourth Declension. Följande tabell visar de allmänna plural system, gemensamma för Historik.

Animate Animera

Inanimate Inanimate

NOM . NOM.

- es -- Es

- --

ACC . ACC.

- ms -- Ms

VOC . VOC.

- es -- Es

GEN . GEN.

- m , (- ē m ) --  m, (- Ē m)

DAT .- ABL . DAT .- ABL.

- bh ( i ) os , (- mos ) -- Bh (i) os, (- mos)

LOC . Loc.

- su / i -- SU / i

INS . INS.

- bhis , (- mis ) -- Bhis, (- MIS)

NOTE. OBS. The inanimate plural forms, - a and - ā , correspond to an older stem vowel of an earlier stage of the language, namely *- h 2 and *- eh 2 , following the Laryngeals' Theory. Den livlös plural former, - ett och - â, motsvara en äldre stam vokalen i ett tidigare skede av språket, nämligen *- h 2 och *- eh 2, efter Laryngeals "Theory.

2. 2. Unlike in the Singular, in which only some Nominatives have an - s , in Nom.-Voc. Till skillnad från i singular, där bara vissa Nominatives har en - s, i Nom.-Voc. Plural the - s is general, and there is always one fix-grade vowel, e . Se den - s är allmänna, och det finns alltid en fix-grade vokal, e. So, the opposition Singular-Plural in - s /- es is actually a Ø / e distinction. Så oppositionen Singular Plural-i - s / - es faktiskt är ett Ø / e åtskillnad. This opposition has also sometimes another mark, the vowel before the ending (see § 4.7 ). Detta motstånd har också ibland ett annat märke, vokal före slutet (se § 4.7).

3. 3. The Nom.-Voc. Den Nom.-Voc. Plural Animate is normally in - es ; as in cówes , ówes , s&amp;#363; ́ nes , etc. Plural Animera är normalt i - es, som i cówes, ówes, s &#363; nes osv

There are forms in - ei - es for i stems, as in owéjes ; in - eu - es for u stems, as in s&amp;#363;néwes ; in ijes , - uwes for ī, &amp;#363; ; as in bhrúwes ; etc. Det finns former på - EI - es for i stjälkar, som i owéjes, i - EU - es för och stjälkar, som i s &#363; néwes, i ijes, - uwes för ī, &#363;, som i bhrúwes, etc.

4. 4. The Accusative Plural Animate is in - ms : ówims , s&amp;#363; ́ nums , c&amp;#333;ms / cóums . Den här artikeln Animera är i - ms: ówims, s &#363; nums, c &#333; ms / cóums.

NOTE. OBS. Some scholars reconstruct for IE III the accusative plural ending - ns , because most of the attested proto-languages show either - ns (as some endings in Sanskrit or Germanic) or long vowel, sometimes with - s . Vissa forskare rekonstruera för IE III ackusativ plural slutar - ns, eftersom de flesta av de bestyrkas proto-språk visar antingen - ns (som vissa ändelser i sanskrit eller germansk) eller lång vokal, ibland med - ar. Most of them also admit an original, older - ms form (a logical accusative singular - m - plus the plural mark - s ), but they prefer to reconstruct the attested - ns , thus (implicitly) suggesting an intermediate phase common to all proto-languages, ie  IE II *- ms > IE III *- ns > proto-languages -[ n ] s . De flesta av dem också erkänna ett original, äldre - ms form (en logisk ackusativ singular - m - plus pluralis varumärket - s), men de föredrar att rekonstruera bestyrkas - ns, alltså (implicit) tyder på en mellanliggande fas gemensamma för alla proto - språk, dvs IE II *- ms> IE III *- ns> proto-språk - [n] ar. We don't know if such an intermediate phase happened, and if it did, if it was common to all languages, or if it was common only to those languages which present in some declensions - ns , and in other declensions another endings. Vi vet inte om en sådan mellanliggande fasen som hände och, om den gjorde, om den är gemensam för alla språk, eller om det var gemensamt bara för de språk som finns i några declensions - ns, och i andra declensions annan ändelser. What we do know with some certainty is that the form - ms existed, and at least since IE II, as the Anatolian dialects show. Vad vi vet med viss säkerhet är att formen - ms funnits, åtminstone sedan IE II, som Anatolian dialekter show.

5. 5. Nom.-Voc. Nom.-Voc. Acc. Acc. Plural Inanimate in - &amp;#257; , - a : pékw&amp;#257; , mórja , médhw&amp;#257; , sw&amp;#257;dwá , etc. Plural Inanimate i - &#257;, - a: pékw &#257;, mórja, médhw &#257;, sw &#257; dwá etc.

6. 6. Genitive Plural Animate in - om /- &amp;#333;m (and Gmc. - &amp;#275;m ): ówjom , nóqtjom , s&amp;#363; ́ nuwēm / s&amp;#363; ́ nuwom , ców&amp;#333;m , etc. Plural genitiv Animera i - om / - &#333; m (och Gmc. - &#275; M): ówjom, nóqtjom, s &#363; nuwēm / s &#363; nuwom, ców & # 333; m osv

NOTE. OBS. The - m of the Acc. I - m av Acc. sg. sg. Animate, Nom.-Acc.-Voc. Animera, Nom.-Acc.-Voc. sg. sg. Inanimate and this case could sometimes be confused. Inanimate och här fallet kunde ibland vara förvirrad. It is disambiguated with the vocalic grade of the Genitive, full or lengthened, as the singular is always Ø . Det är disambiguated med vocalic kvalitet av den Genitiv, helt eller förlängas, eftersom ordet är alltid Ø.

f. owi - f. owi --

m. s ū nu - m. s ū nu --

f. bhr ū - f. bhr ū --

m. c ou - m. c ou --

NOM . NOM.

ówes ówes

s ū ́ nes s ū nes

bhrúwes bhrúwes

c ówes c ówes

ACC . ACC.

ówims ówims

s ū ́ nums s ū nums

bhr ū ms bhr ū ms

c óums c óums

VOC . VOC.

ówes ówes

s ū ́ nes s ū nes

bhrúwes bhrúwes

c ówes c ówes

GEN . GEN.

ówjom ówjom

s ū ́ nuw ē m s ū nuw Ē m

bhrúw ō m bhrúw ō m

c ów ō m c ów ō m

DAT . DAT.

ówibhios ówibhios

s ū ́ numos s ū numos

bhr ū ́ bhos bhr ū bhos

c óubhios c óubhios

LOC. Loc.

ówisi ówisi

s ū ́ nusu s ū nusu

bhr ū ́ se bhr ū se

c óusi c óusi

INS. INS.

ówibhis ówibhis

s ū ́ numis s ū numis

bhr ū ́ bhis bhr ū bhis

c óubhis c óubhis

ABL. ABL.

ówibhios ówibhios

s ū ́ numos s ū numos

bhr ū ́ bhos bhr ū bhos

c óubhios c óubhios

7. 7. The Obliques are generally divided into two groups, in - bh - (that of Lat., Gk., I.-I., Arm., and Cel.) and in - m - (that of Gmc. and Bal.-Sla.). Den Obliques i allmänhet är indelade i två grupper, - bh - (som i Lat., GK., I.-I., Arm. Och Cel.) Och i - m - (som i Gmc. Och Bal.-Sla .). There are, thus, - bhis , - bhos , - bhios , - bhi , and - mis , - mos ; as, s ū ́ nubhis , s&amp;#363; ́ nubhos , s&amp;#363; ́ nubhios , s&amp;#363; ́ numis , s&amp;#363; ́ numos . Det finns således - bhis, - bhos, - bhios, - BHI, och - mis, - vilja, som, s ū nubhis, s &#363; nubhos, s &#363; nubhios, s & # 363; numis, s &#363; numos.

There is also another ending possible, that in - s - i , - s - u , s - e , generally Locative (in I.-I. and Bal.-Sla.), but also possibly general Dat.-Loc.-Ins. Det finns också en annan slutar möjligt att i - s - i, - s - u, s - e, allmänt Locative (i I.-I. och Bal.-sla.) Utan också möjligen allmänna dat.-Loc .- Ins. (as in Greek); as, s&amp;#363; ́ nusi , s&amp;#363; ́ nusu , s&amp;#363; ́ nuse . (som på grekiska), som, s &#363; nusi, s &#363; nusu, s &#363; NUSE.

In the Oblique Plural specialized system, which is a common feature of Proto-Balto-Slavic and Proto-Indo-Iranian dialects, (and, to some extent, of Proto-Greek and Proto-Armenian), the Instrumental was probably formed adding the plural mark - s to the Instrumental Singular of the Second Declension, - bhi , - mi . I Oblique Plural specialiserade system, som är ett vanligt inslag i Proto-baltisk-slaviska och Proto-Indo-iranska dialekter, (och i viss mån av Proto-grekiska och Proto-armeniska), Instrumental var troligen bildats lägger till plural varumärket - s till Instrumental en av vin, - BHI, - mi. The Dat.-Abl. Den dat.-ABL. was then opposed in vowel stem to the Instrumental: - bhos or - mos against - bhis or - mis . Därefter motståndare i vokalen stam till Instrumental: - bhos eller - Vilja mot - bhis eller - mis. The Locative was made with an - s marking the plural, and an - i which is the Loc. Den Locative gjordes med en - s märkning pluralis, och en - i vilken är den Loc. mark. märke.

NOTE. OBS. Its origin is probably the plural mark - s -, to which the local case ending - i is added. Dess ursprung är troligen pluralis varumärket - s - till vilket den lokala fall slutar - i tillsätts. This is a general oblique ending in the thematic declension. Detta är en allmän sned som slutar i det tematiska deklination.

4.5. 4,5. Fourth Declension Historik

4.5.1. 4.5.1. The Paradigm Den Paradigm

1. 1. The Stem of Nouns of the Second Declension ends in Consonant or Sonant, ie - n , - r , - s , Occlusive (especially - t ), and rarely - l , - m . Den Stam av Ord av vin slutar i Consonant eller Sonant, dvs - n, - r, - s, ocklusiv (framför allt - t), och sällan - l, - m. The inflection of animates is essentially the same as that of the Second or Thematic Declension. Den inflection av animerar är i huvudsak densamma som för andra eller tematiska Grammatik.

2. 2. Nouns of the Fourth Declension in MIE correspond to Latin nouns of First Declension in - r (cf. Lat. magister , magistr&amp;#299; ), and Third Declension in consonant (cf. Lat. pr&amp;#299;nceps , pr&amp;#299;ncipis , phoen&amp;#299;x , phoen&amp;#299;cis , c&amp;#333;n&amp;#257;men , cōnāminis, etc.), and to the Ancient Greek Labial and Velar declension (cf. Gk. ραψ , ραβος , or Φρύξ , Φρυγός ). Ord på fjärde Substantiv på MIE motsvarar latinska substantiv av eufonium i - r (jfr Lat. Magister, Magister &#299;), och tredje Substantiv på konsonant (jfr Lat. Pr &#299; nceps, PR & # 299; ncipis, phoen &#299; x, phoen &#299; cis, c &#333; n &#257; män, cōnāminis, etc.) och att det gamla grekiska labial och Velar deklination (se GK . ραψ, ραβος eller Φρύξ, Φρυγός).

The Nominative ending is - s (with Occlusive, - m , - l ), but there is also a Nominative Sg. Nominativ slutar är - s (med ocklusiv, - m, - l), men det finns också en Nominativ Sg. with pure stem vowel (desinence - Ø and lengthened ending vowel), so that the full-grade Vocative is differentiated. med ren stam vokalen (desinence - Ø och förlängt slutar vokal), så att full-grade Vokativ är differentierade. And there is no confusion in Nom./Gen., as - s has a different vowel grade (Nom. - s , Gen. - es or - os ). Och det finns ingen förvirring i Nom. / Gen., Som - s har en annan vokal-klass (Nom. - s, Gen - es - os).

Consonant-Declension Paradigm Consonant-Deklination Paradigm

Occlusive , - m , - l Ocklusiv, - m, - l

- r , - n , - s -- R, - n, - s

NOM . NOM.

- s -- S

- Ø (long vowel) -- Ø (lång vokal)

ACC . ACC.

- m [ m ̥ ] -- M [m ̥]

VOC . VOC.

- Ø -- Ø

- Ø (full grade) -- Ø (hel klass)

GEN .- ABL . GEN .- ABL.

- e / os -- E / os

DAT . DAT.

- ei -- EI

LOC . Loc.

- i -- I

INS . INS.

- bhi , (- mi ) -- BHI, (- mi)

NOTE. OBS. These specialized Oblique endings were probably already splitting in Late PIE, at least in a dialect-to-dialect basis. Dessa specialiserade Oblique ändelser var antagligen redan delats upp i slutet PIE, åtminstone i en dialekt till dialekt. Compare Indo-Iranian Dat. Jämför indo-iranska Dat. - ei , Loc. -- Ei, Loc. - i ; Italic Dat. -- I, Italic Dat. - ei , Loc.-Inst.-Abl. -- Ei, Loc.-Inst.-ABL. - i ; Greek Inst. -- I, grekiska Inst. - bhi ; in Balto-Slavic Inst. -- BHI, i baltisk-slaviska Inst. - mi , and so on. -- Mi, och så vidare. There is no exact original pattern that includes every dialect, but we may reliably imply an original Oblique declension - i , which had split into - i (Loc.) and - ei (Dat.) already in Late PIE. Det finns inga exakta ursprungliga mönster som inkluderar alla dialekt, men vi får ett tillförlitligt sätt innebära ett original Oblique deklination - i, som hade delats upp i - i (Loc.) och - ei (dat.) redan i slutet av PIE.

3. 3. Inanimates have pure vowel stems with different vocalic grades. Inanimates har ren vokal stjälkar med olika vocalic betyg. In nouns there should be no confusion at all, as they are different words, but neuter adjectives could be mistaken in Nominative or Vocative Animate. I artikeln är det inte bör finnas några oklarheter alls, eftersom de är olika ord, men neutrum adjektiv kan vara felaktig Nominativ eller Vokativ Animera. Distinction is thus obtained with vocalism, as in Animate - ōn vs. Skillnaden är alltså erhållits med vocalism, som i Animera - ōn vs Inanimate - on , Animate - &amp;#275;s vs. Inanimate - om, Animera - &#275; s vs Inanimate - es (neuter nouns in - s are in - os ). Inanimate - es (neutrum artikeln i - s har i - os).

4.5.2. 4.5.2. In Occlusive, m, l I ocklusiv, M, L

1. 1. Nominative Sg.Animates in - s ; as, d ms , house , p ds 37 , foot , bhŕghs 128 , bury , d nts 173 , tooth . Nominativ Sg.Animates i - s, som, d ms, hus, p ds 37, fot, bhŕghs 128, begrava, d nts 173, tand.

2. 2. Accusative Singular Animate in - m [ m ̥ ]; as, d mm , p dm , bh&amp;#341;ghm , d ntm . Ackusativ Singular Animera i - m [m ̥], som, d mm, p dm, bh &#341; ghm, d NTM.

3. 3. Vocative Singular Animate in - Ø ; a sin p&amp;#333;d , bhrgh , d&amp;#333;nt . Vokativ efter Animera i - Ø; en synd p &#333; d, bhrgh, d &#333; NT.

4. 4. The Nom.-Acc.-Voc. Den Nom.-Acc.-Voc. Singular Inanimate in - Ø , with various vocalisms; as in krd [153] Singular Inanimate i - Ø, med olika vocalisms, som i krd [153]

5. 5. Genitive Singular in - es /- os ; as in péd ( e ) s / pedés , dént ( e ) s / dentés , dém ( e ) s / demés . Genitiv Singular in - es / - os, som i péd (e) s / pedés, dént (e) s / dentés, dém (e) s / demés.

6. 6. Dative Singular in - ei : pedéi , dontéi , bhrghéi , etc. Dativ Singular in - ei: pedéi, dontéi, bhrghéi etc.

7. 7. Locative Singular in - i : pedí / p é di , d nti , bhrghí , etc. Locative en i - i: pedí / p é di, d NTI, bhrghí etc.

m. ped - m. PED --

m. d ō nt - m. d ō nt --

n. k rd - n. k rd --

NOM . NOM.

p ō ds p ō ds

d ō nts d ō nts

k rd k rd

ACC . ACC.

p dm p dm

d ntm d NTM

k rd k rd

VOC . VOC.

p ō d p ō d

d ō nt d ō nt

k rd k rd

GEN . GEN.

pedés pedés

d e ntós d e ntós

k rdós k rdós

DAT . DAT.

pedéi pedéi

d e ntéi d e ntéi

k rdéi k rdéi

LOC . Loc.

pedí pedí

d e ntí d e ntí

k rdí k rdí

INS . INS.

pedbhí pedbhí

d e ntmí d e ntmí

k r dbhí k r dbhí

ABL . ABL.

pedós pedós

d e ntós d e ntós

k rdós k rdós

4.5.3. 4.5.3. In r, n, s I r, n, s

1. 1. Nominative Singular Animate in - Ø with lengthened vowel; as in m&amp;#257;t r / m t ēr 14 , mother , kwōn [154] , dog , ghés&amp;#333;r , hand (cf. Hitt. ki šš ar , Gk. kheirí ), ór&amp;#333;n 139 , eagle . Nominativ Singular Animera i - Ø med förlängd vokal, som i m &#257; t r / m  t ēr 14, mor, kwōn [154], hund, ghés &#333; r, hand (jfr HiTT. Ki šš ar, GK. kheirí), ór &#333; n 139, örn.

Stems in s , ndher - gen s , degenerate , gén&amp;#333;s 32 , kin , á usōs 69 , dawn , nébh&amp;#333;s 31 , cloud . Stjälkar i s, ndher - gen s, urarta, gén &#333; s 32, kin, á usōs 69, gryning, nébh &#333; s 31, moln.

2. 2. Accusative Sg. Ackusativ Sg. Animate in - m ; as in m&amp;#257;térm , kwónm , ndheregenésm , áus o sm , ghesérm . Animera i - m, som i m &#257; térm, kwónm, ndheregenésm, áus o sm, ghesérm.

3. 3. Vocative Singular Animate in - Ø with full vowel; as in m&amp;#257;tér , kúon , áusos . Vokativ efter Animera i - Ø med full vokal, som i m &#257; tér, kúon, áusos.

4. 4. The Nom.-Acc.-Voc. Den Nom.-Acc.-Voc. Singular Inanimate in - Ø ; as in n ó mn , génos . Singular Inanimate i - Ø; som i n ó MN, génos.

The adjectives in - s have the neuter in - es : ( a ) sugenés (cf. Gk. eugenes , O.Ind. sugana ) De adjektiv i - s har neutrum i - es: (a) sugenés (jfr GK. Eugenes, O. Ind. Sugana ḥ)

5. 5. Genitive Singular in - es /- os ; as in m&amp;#257;trés / m&amp;#257;trós (also m&amp;#257; t ŕ s , pat ŕ s , bhrtrs , etc.), kunés / kunós , nomnés / nomnós , ornés . Genitiv Singular in - es / - os, som i m &#257; trés / m &#257; trós (även m &#257; t ŕ s, pat ŕ s, bhr  TRS, etc.), kunés / kunós , Nomnés / nomnós, ornés.

Nouns and adjectives in - s have an e , not an o , as the final stem vowel: genesés , ausosés . Substantiv och adjektiv i - s har ett e, inte ett o, som sista stam vokalen: genesés, ausosés.

6. 6. Dative Singular in - ei , Locative Singular in - i : mātérei, m&amp;#257;téri , kwónei , ausoséi , ghésri etc. Dativ Singular in - ei, Locative en i - i: mātérei, m &#257; téri, kwónei, ausoséi, ghésri etc.

8. 8. Instrumental Singular in - bhi (dialectal - mi ): mātrbhí, kunbhí, ausosbhí , etc. Instrumental Singular in - BHI (dialectal - mi): mātrbhí, kunbhí, ausosbhí etc.

m. kwon m. Kwon

f. m ā ter f. m â ter

n. genos n. genos

n. nomn n. nomn

adj. adj. m. ndhergenes m. ndhergenes

NOM . NOM.

kw ō n kw ō n

m ā t r m â t r

gén ō s gén ō s

n ó mn n ó mn

ndhergen s ndhergen s

ACC . ACC.

kwónm kwónm

m ā térm m â térm

gén ō s gén ō s

n ó mn n ó mn

ndhergenésm ndhergenésm

VOC . VOC.

kwon Kwon

m ā tér m â tér

gén ō s gén ō s

n ó mn n ó mn

ndhergenés ndhergenés

GEN . GEN.

kunés kunés

m ā trós m â trós

gen e sós gen e sós

n o mnós n o mnós

ndhergen é ses ndhergen é ses

DAT . DAT.

kunéi kunéi

m ā tréi m â tréi

geneséi geneséi

n o mnéi n o mnéi

ndhergen sei ndhergen sei

LOC . Loc.

kwóni / kuní kwóni / kuní

m ā t ( é ) m â t (é) Rí

genesí genesí

n o mní n o mní

ndhergen si ndhergen si

INS . INS.

kunmí kunmí

m ā trbhí m â trbhí

genesmí genesmí

n o mnbhí n o mnbhí

ndhergen smi ndhergen smi

ABL . ABL.

kunós kunós

m ā trós m â trós

genesós genesós

n o mnós n o mnós

ndhergen sos ndhergen sos

4.5.4. 4.5.4. The Plural in the Fourth Declension Pluralis i det fjärde Substantiv

With a paradigm common to the Third Declension, here are some inflected examples. Med ett paradigm gemensamma för tredje Grammatik, här är några böjningsformer exempel.

m. kwon m. Kwon

f. m ā ter f. m â ter

n. genos n. genos

m. d ō nt - m. d ō nt --

n. nomn - n. nomn --

NOM . NOM.

kw ónes kw ónes

m ā t éres m â t éres

géne sa géne sa

d ntes d ntes

n mna n MNA

ACC . ACC.

kwónms kwónms

m ā t ŕ m s m â t ŕ m s

gén esa gén esa

d ntms d ntms

n mna n MNA

VOC . VOC.

kwónes kwónes

m ā téres m â téres

génesa génesa

d ntes d ntes

n mna n MNA

GEN . GEN.

kunóm kunóm

m ā tr m m â tr m

gen e s m gen e s m

d ō ntóm d ō ntóm

n ō mnóm n ō mnóm

DAT . DAT.

kunmós kunmós

m ā trbhiós m â trbhiós

genesbhós genesbhós

d ō ntbhiós d ō ntbhiós

n ō mnbhiós n ō mnbhiós

LOC . Loc.

kunsú kunsú

m ā trsú m â trsú

genessí genessí

d ō ntsí d ō ntsí

n ō mnsí n ō mnsí

INS . INS.

kunmí kunmí

m ā trbhís m â trbhís

genesbhís genesbhís

d ō ntbhís d ō ntbhís

n ō mnbhís n ō mnbhís

ABL . ABL.

kunmós kunmós

m ā trbhiós m â trbhiós

genesbhiós genesbhiós

d ō ntbhiós d ō ntbhiós

n ō mnbhiós n ō mnbhiós

4.6. 4,6. Variable Nouns Variabel Ord

4.6.1. 4.6.1. Many nouns vary in Declension, and they are called Heteroclites . Många svenska varierar i Grammatik, och de kallas Heteroclites.

Note. Anm. ie, “nouns of different inflections” ( τερος, “ another” , κλινω, “ to inflect” ) dvs, "på svenska i olika böjningsformer" (ἕ τερος, "en annan", κλινω, "att inflect")

4.6.2. 4.6.2. Heteroclitic forms are isolated and archaic, given only in Inanimates, as remains of an older system, well attested in Anatolian. Heteroclitic former är isolerade och ålderdomliga, ges endast i Inanimates, som resterna av ett äldre system, väl styrkt i Anatolian.

4.6.3. 4.6.3. They consist of one form to mark the Nom.-Acc.-Voc, and another for the Obliques, as eg De består av ett formulär för att markera Nom.-Acc.-flyktiga organiska ämnen, och en annan för Obliques, som t.ex.

a. a. Opposition Ø - n : d rus , drunós 54 , tree ; &amp;#333;s , &amp;#333;sónos , mouth . Opposition Ø - N: d rus, drunós 54, träd, &#333; s, &#333; sónos, mun.

b. b. Opposition r -( e ) n : ághōr , aghnós 60 , day ; bh mōr , bh&amp;#275;m ( e ) nés thigh , j qr ( t ), j qn ( t ) ós , liver , wód&amp;#333;r , wodonós (cf. Got. wato / watins ), úd&amp;#333;r , udn ( t ) ós (cf. Gk. úd&amp;#333;r , údatos ), water , etc. Opposition r - (e) n: ághōr, aghnós 60, dag, bh mōr, bh &#275; m (e) nés låret, j qr (t), j qn (t) ós, lever, wód & # 333; r, wodonós (jfr Got. Wato / watins), úd &#333; r, udn (t) ós (jfr GK. Úd &#333; r, údatos), vatten, etc.

NOTE. OBS. For PIE root bhed ( h ), cf. För PIE root bhed (h), jfr. Slav. bedro , Lat. femur , feminis / femoris ; for PIE j&amp;#275;q , cf. Slaviska. Bedro, Lat. Lårbenet, feminis / femoris, för PIE j &#275; q ṛ, jfr. Gk. h ē par , Lat. iecur , Av. y ā kar ə , for jeq cf. Ved. yák t , and compare its Obl. Skr. yakn- ás , Gk. h pa t-os <* h&amp;#275;pn ̥ ( t ). GK. H Ē par, Lat. Iecur, Av. Y â kar ə, för jeq cf. Ved. Yák t, och jämför dess obl. Skr. Yakn-ás, GK. H pa t-os <* H & , # 275; pn ̥ (t).

4.6.4. 4.6.4. The Heteroclites follow the form of the Genitive Singular when forming the Obliques. Den Heteroclites följa form av Genitiv Singular när utgör Obliques. That is so in the lengthening before declension, vocalism, and in the accent too. Det är så i förlängning innan deklination, vocalism, och i det uttal också.

4.7. 4,7. Vocalism before the Declension Vocalism före Substantiv

4.7.1. 4.7.1. The Predeclensional vowel is that which precedes the ending, even the Ø ending; ie, we say that Nom. pat r 57 (< older * patér - s ) has a long predeclensional vowel; that the Vocative patér has a full one, and that patŕs has it Ø . Den Predeclensional vokalen är det som föregår det slutar, även de Ø slutar, dvs, vi säger att Nom. Pat r 57 (<äldre * patér - s) har en lång predeclensional vokal; att Vokativ patér har en full, och att patŕs har det Ø. Other examples of the three possibilities are p&amp;#333;d , pod and - pd -. Andra exempel på de tre möjligheterna är p &#333; d, pod och - pd -.

NOTE. OBS. The vocalic changes in timbre and grade aren't meaningful by themselves, they are multifunctional: they can only have meaning in a specific declension, and it is not necessarily always the same. Den vocalic förändringar i klangfärg och betyg är inte meningsfull i sig, de är multifunktionella: de bara kan få betydelse i en viss deklination, och det är inte nödvändigtvis alltid detsamma. They are thus disambiguating elements, which help distinguish homophones (ie, words that sound alike). De är alltså disambiguating faktorer som bidrar skilja homophones (dvs ord som uttalas likadant).

4.7.2. 4.7.2. Two kinds of nominal inflection have no alternating vowel: that in i , u , and that of the participles of Reduplicates. Två typer av nominella inflection har inga växlar vokal: att i, u, och att de verktyg för Reduplicates.

4.7.3. 4.7.3.  Stems in r and n have two possibilities, both with a Nom. Stjälkar i r och n har två möjligheter, både med en Nom. sg. sg. in - Ø and lengthened vowel. i - Ø och förlängt vokal.

1. 1. Nom. Nom. with lengthened vowel, Acc., Voc. med förlängd vokal, Acc., VOC. with full vowel, and Gen. - Ø . med full vokal, och Gen - Ø. The timbre can be e or o , depending on the words. Den timbre kan vara e eller o, beroende på ord.

a. a. In r , as in Nom. m&amp;#257;t r (< older * m&amp;#257;tér - s ), Acc. m&amp;#257;térm , Voc. m&amp;#257;tér , Gen. m&amp;#257;trós . I r, som i Nom. M &#257; t r (<äldre * m &#257; tér - s), Acc. M &#257; térm, VOC. M &#257; tér, Gen M & , # 257; trós.

b. b. In n , in PIE root stems, as in dog : Nom. kw&amp;#333;n / kuw n (< older * kwon - s ), Acc. kwónm / kuwónm , Voc. kúon / kúwon , Gen. kunós . I n, PIE root stjälkar, som i hund: Nom. Kw &#333; n / kuw n (<äldre * Kwon - s), Acc. Kwónm / kuwónm, VOC. Kúon / kúwon, Gen kunós.

2. 2. Sometimes, the Genitive has a full grade as the Accusative and the Vocative. Ibland är Genitiv har en hel klass som ackusativ och Vokativ. This grade is redundant, not necessary for the disambiguation of the Genitive from the Nominative. There are, as above, different timbres e and o , sometimes o in Nom.-Acc.-Voc., and e in Gen., sometimes o in Acc.-Voc.-Gen. and e in Obl.

4.7.4. There is usually the same vocalism in nouns ending in Occlusive.

An exception is made in the adjectives and participles in - nt , which present long vowel in the Nominative, full vowel in Accusative and Vocative, and zero-grade in the Genitive; cf. bher nts / bheróntm / bherntós or bher nts / bheréntm / bherntós .

NOTE. There are remains of what seems to be an older alternating vocalism in monosyllabics. The variants ped / pod , neqt / noqt , etc. suggest an original (ie IE II) paradigm Nom . p ō d - s , Acc. p ō d - m , Gen. ped - ós . This is, again, mostly irrelevant for Modern Indo-European, in which both alternating forms may appear in frozen vocabulary, either with o or e .

4.7.5. Stems in s do not present a zero-grade. Animates, as already said, oppose a lengthened-vowel Nominative to the other cases, which have full vowel, ie, Nom. - &amp;#275;s , rest - es , Nom. - &amp;#333;s , rest - os .

4.7.6. We know already what happens with stems in i , u , which have two general models:

1. 1. Nom. - i - s , Acc. - i - m , Voc. - ei or - i , Gen. - i - os / Nom. - u - s , Acc. - u - m , Voc. - ei or - i , Gen. - u - os

2. 2. Nom. - i - s , Acc. - i - m , Voc. - eu or - u , Gen. - ei - s / Nom. - u - s , Acc. - u - m , Voc. - eu or - u , Gen. - eu - s

NOTE. This is an inversion of the normal situation: the Nom.-Acc.-Voc. has zero-grade (but for some Voc.), the Gen. Ø or full. Distinction is obtained through alternating forms; as in Voc., in which the ending - ei distinguishes it from Neuters in - i ; or with changes of e / o .

4.7.7. Those in Long Diphthong alternate the diphthong (or long vowel) with j or w , which represents the Ø -grade; as in dj us 63 , dj&amp;#275;m , diwós ; or n u - s 127 , naw - ós . Uniform vocalism (ie, no vowel change) is generalized, though.

NOTE. These diphthongs reflect a possibly older situation, of a vowel plus a laryngeal (as *- eh 2 ) and they are probably related to nouns in a , and also to those in e and o .

4.7.8. Stems in &amp;#257; usually maintain an uniform vocalism: Nom.-Voc. - &amp;#257; , Acc. - &amp;#257;m , Gen. - &amp;#257;s . But those in i / &amp;#299; may alternate Nom.-Voc. - i /- &amp;#299; , Gen. - i&amp;#257;s .

There are also remains of - &amp;#257; in Voc. (and even Nom.), as well as - ai , cf. Gk. γυναι ( gunai , an example also found in Armenian), Gk. Ευρωπαι ( Eur ō pai ) and other forms in - ai in Latin (as rosae <-* rosai ), Old Indian and other IE dialects. The - &amp;#275; and - &amp;#333; endings have also traces of alternating phonetic changes.

N OTE. In O.Gk. Ε ρώπη ( Eur ō p ē ), Ε ρώπα ( Eur ō p ā ) , the Genitive is Eur &amp;#333; p - ai , which gives also the thematic adjective Eur &amp;#333; pai - ós , hence Modern Indo-European adjective Eur ō paiós , Eur ō pai , Eur ō paióm , and nominalized forms (with accent shift) Eur ō páios / Eur paios , - om , - &amp;#257; . In Latin this - ai - o - corresponds to - ae - u -, and so Europae - us , - a , - um . See also § 1.7.5.

4.7.9. Finally, the Neuter stems distinguish the Nom.-Acc.-Voc. forms by having a predeclensional vowel, normally Ø (the ending is also Ø , but for thematic stems), as we have seen in nouns ending in i , u , r , n and Occlusive; as mádhu , n mn , krd . There are exceptions, though:

1. 1. Nouns with lengthened or full vowel; as, Gk. úd&amp;#333;r 61 (from údros , cf. also O.Ind. áhar )

2. 2. Nouns in s cannot have - Ø - , they have - o - in nouns, - e - in adjectives; as in gén&amp;#333;s , race ; adj. eugen s , of good race .

3. 3. Finals e / o have a uniform predeclensional vowel, normally o , plus Nom.-Acc.-Voc ending - m .

NOTE 1. In the Oblique cases, neuters are declined like the animates.

NOTE 2. There are no neuters in - a , but for those which became common plural nouns, as egn Búb li , Bible , lit.“ the books ”, from Gk. búbliom , book .

4.8. Vocalism in the Plural

4.8.1. Vocalism in the Plural is generally the same as in the Singular. In Nominative-Vocative and Accusative, the straight cases, the full vowel grade is general (there is no Nominative with lengthened vowel), and in the Genitive the zero - grade is general. But there are also some special situations:

1. 1. There are examples of full vowel in Nom.-Voc.; stems in - ei - es and - eu - es (in i , u stems); in - er - es , - or - es ; - en - es , - on - es ; - es - es .

2. 2. Sometimes, the vowel timbre varies; as, ákm&amp;#333;n / ákmenes , ( sharp ) stone , which gives Lith. akmuö / akmenes , OCS kamy / kamene , and so on.

3. 3. There are also some zero-grades; cf Gk. óies .  Also some analogical forms, as Gk. kúnes , Lat. carnes .

4.8.2. The Ø -grade, an exception in the Nom.-Voc., is usual in Accusative Plural in i , u stems; as in derivatives with forms - i - ns , - u - ns .

As a general rule, then, the Plural has a full vowel: ákmenes , m&amp;#257;téres , etc.

4.8.3. The stems in s of Inanimates in the Nom.-Acc.-Voc. Plural present - es - a , - es - &amp;#257; : they follow the vowel timbre in the whole inflection, but for the Nom.-Acc.-Voc. Singular in - os . The rest are in - Ø .

4.8.4.  The general vocalism of the Genitive Plural is Ø . But the full grade is sometimes found, too; as in ákmenom . The most common stems in which the full grade can be found are n and sometimes r ; as in m&amp;#257;tr m , which could also be m&amp;#257;tér&amp;#333;m .

To sum up, Nominative Plural is usually opposed to Nominative Singular, while Genitive and Accusative tend to assimilate Singular and Plural. When the last are the same, full vowel is found in the Accusative, and Ø in the Genitive.

4.8.5. In the Obliques, where there is a distinction, the form is that of the Nominative Singular Animate or Nom.-Acc.-Voc. Singular Inanimate; and when, in any of them, there is a distinction between full- and Ø -grade, they take the last. An example of Animates is pod , which gives Nom. p&amp;#333;ds , Gen. pedós , Obl. Plural podbhís . In Inanimates it happens with s stems which have - os in Nom.-Acc. and - es in the other cases; as in gén&amp;#333;s , genesí , genesbhós . And in Heteroclites that oppose an - n in the cases that are not Nom.-Acc.-Voc. with r , s or Ø .

The zero-grade in the predeclensional syllable is very common, whether it has the Genitive vocalism or the full one; as, kw&amp;#333;n / kunsí . This Ø -grade is also found in r stems, as in patrós , patrbhiós . And so in i , u , stems too, in Nom. and Acc. Sg., while e is otherwise found (in Nom. Pl., and sometimes in Gen. Sg. and Pl.). The Obliques Plural have Ø ; as, egníbhios , egnísi , egníbhis ; ghóstibhis , etc.

4.9. Accent in Declension

4.9.1. Just like vocalic grades, the accent is used (normally redundantly) to oppose the Straight cases (Nom.-Acc.-Voc.) to the Oblique ones.

NOTE. This is one of the worst reconstructed parts of Proto-Indo-European, as each language has developed its own accent system. Only Vedic Sanskrit, Greek and Balto-Slavic dialects appear to have more or less retained the oldest accent system, and even these have undergone different systematizations, which obscure still more the original situation in Proto-Indo-European

4.9.2. In monosyllabics, the alternating system is clearly observed:

Nom. p&amp;#333;ds , Acc. p dm , Gen. pedés .

Nom. kw&amp;#333;n , Acc. kwónm , Gen. kunós .

4.9.3. In polysyllabics, there is eg dhúg ( a ) t&amp;#275;r 131 , dhug ( a ) trós , etc., but also bhr ter , bhr trs (cf. Skr. bhartu , ON bró ð or ), or m&amp;#257;t&amp;#341;s (cf. O.Ind. matúr ), pat&amp;#341;s (cf. Got. fadrs ), and so on.

1. 1. Stems in i , u , had probably a root accent in Nom.-Acc., and a Genitive with accent on declension, as in the rest of examples.

2. 2. Those in &amp;#257; are not clearly reconstructed, therefore the alternating system is maintained.

3. 3. The Vocative could be distinguished with the accent. The general rule, observed in Skr., Gk. and O.Sla., is that it is unstressed, but for the beginning of a sentence; in this case, the accent goes in the first syllable, to differentiate it from the Nominative with accent on declension.

NOTE. The accent in the Vocative is also related to the intonation of the sentence.

4.9.4. In the Plural system no general accent pattern can be found. Each Indo-European dialect developed its own system to distinguish the homophones in Singular and Plural. In the Obliques, however, the accent is that of the Genitive, when it is opposed to the Nom.-Acc; as in patrbhiós , m&amp;#257;trbhís , etc.

NOTE. The so-called qetwóres -rule had been observed by earlier scholars, but has only recently attracted attention. It is a sound law of PIE accent, stating that in a word of three syllables é - o - X the accent will be moved to the penultimate, e - ó - X . Examples include qetwóres < qétwores , four , singular accusatives of r-stems (cf. swesórm < swésorm , sister ), of r/n-heteroclitica (cf. ghesórm < ghésorm , hand ), of s-stems (cf. IE * h 2 ausósm <* h 2 éusosm , dawn ). This rule is fed by an assumed earlier sound law that changes * e to IE o after an accented syllable, ie qetwóres < qétwores <* qétweres . Rix (1988) invokes this rule to explain why in the PIE Perfect the o-grade root is accented, eg gegón -/ gégn - < gégen -/ gégn , created , engendered .

4.10. Compound Words

4.10.1. Nominal Compositum or nominal composition is the process of putting two or more words together to form another word. The new word, called a Compound Word, is either a Noun or an Adjective, and it does not necessarily have the same meaning as its parts.

4.10.2. The second term of a Compound Word may be

a) a Noun (Gk. akró-polis , “ high city, citadel ”)

b) an Adjective (Gk. theo-eíkelos , “ similar to the gods ”) or

c) a Noun adapted to the adjectival inflection (Gk. arguró-tozos , “ silver arc ”)

NOTE. Sometimes a suffix is added (cf. Gk. en-neá-boios , “ of nine cows ”), and the Compound Noun may have a different gender than the second term (cf. Lat. triuium , “ cross roads ”, from tr&amp;#275;s and uia ).

4.10.3. The first term is a Pure Stem, without distinction of word class, gender or number. It may be an Adverb, a Numeral (Gk. trí-llistos, “supplicated three times”, polú-llistos, “very supplicated” ) or a Pronoun (cf. O.Ind. tatpuru a , “ that man ”), as well as a Nominal-Verbal stem with Nominal (Gk. andra - phónos , “ who kills a man ”), Adjetival (Gk. akró-polis ), or Verbal function (Gk. arkhé - kakos , “ who begins the evil ”), and also an Adjective proper (Gk. polú-tropos , “ of many resources ”).

4.10.4. Usually, the first term has zero-grade, cf. O.Ind. ṇr -hán , Gk. polú - tropos , Lat. aui -( caps ), etc. Common exceptions are stems in - e / os , as Gk. sakés - palos , “ who shakes the shield ” (Gk. sákos , “ shield ”), and some suffixes which are substituted by a lengthening in - i , cf. Gk. kudi - áneira , “ who glorifies men ” (Gk. kudrós ), Av. b ə r ə zi - č axra -, “ of high wheels ” (Av. b ə r ə zant -).

In Thematic stems, however, the thematic - e / o appears always, as an o if Noun or Adjective (Gk. akró - polis ), as an e if Verb (Gk. arkhé - kakos ).

4.10.5. The first term usually defines the second, the contrary is rare; the main Compound types are:

A. Formed by Verbs, cf. O.Ind. ṇr - hán , Gk. andra - phónos (Gk. andro - is newer) Lat. auceps , O.Sla. medv - &amp;#277;d&amp;#301; , “ honey-eater ”, bear, and also with the second term defining the first, as Gk. arkhé - kakos .

B. Nominal Determiners (first term defines the second), with first term Noun (cf. Gk. m&amp;#275;tro - pát&amp;#333;r ,  “ mother’s father ”, Goth. þiudan - gardi , “ kingdom ”), Adective (cf. Gk. akró - polis , O.Sla. dobro - god ŭ , “ good time ”, O.Ir. find - airgit , “ white plant ”, Lat. angi - portus , “ narrow pass ”), or Numeral (cf. Lat. tri - uium , from uia , Gk. ámaza , “ chariot frame ”, from áz ō n ).

C. Adjectival Determiners ( tatpuruṣa- for Indian grammarians), with first term Noun (cf. Gk. theo - eíkelos , Goth. gasti - godsgood for the guests ”), Adverb (cf. O.Ind. ájñ ā tas , Gk. ágnotos , “ unknown ”, phroudos , “ who is on its way ”, from pró and odós ).

D. Possessive Compounds ( bahu - vrihi -, “ which has a lot of rice ”, for Indian grammarians), as in Eng. barefoot , “ (who goes) with bare feet ”, with the first term Noun (cf. Gk. arguró - tozos , O.Sla. &amp;#269;r&amp;#365;no - vlad&amp;#365; , “ of black hair ”), Adjective (cf. Lat. magn - animus , “ of great spirit ”), Adverb (cf. O.Ind. durman s, GK. dus-men&amp;#7703;s , “ wicked ”).

The accent could also distinguish the Determiners from the Possessives, as in O.Ind. rāja-putrás , “ a king’s son ”,  from O.Ind. rajá-putras , “ who has a son as king, king’s father ”.


5. 5. Adjectives

5.1. Inflection of Adjectives

5.1.1. In IE III, the noun could be determined in three different ways: with another noun, as in “ stone wall ”; with a noun in Genitive, as in “ the father's house ”; or with an adjective, as in “ paternal love ”. These are all possible in MIE too, but the adjective corresponds to the third way, ie, to that kind of words – possibly derived from older Genitives – that are declined to make it agree in case, gender and number with the noun they define.

5.1.2. The adjective is from the older stages like a noun, and even today Indo-European languages have the possibility to make an adjective a noun (as English ), or a noun an adjective ( stone wall ). Furthermore, some words are nouns and adjectives as well: w&amp;#341;s&amp;#275;n 79 , male, man , can be the subject of a verb (ie, a noun), and can determine a noun.

Most of the stems are actually indifferent to the opposition noun/adjective, and even most of the suffixes. Their inflection is common, too, and differences are normally secondary. This is the reason why we have already studied the adjective declensions; they are the same as the noun's.

5.1.3. However, since the oldest IE language there were nouns different from adjectives, as w&amp;#314;qos or p&amp;#333;ds , and adjectives different from nouns, as rudhrós 61 , solwós , etc. Nouns could, in turn, be used as adjectives, and adjectives be nominalized.

NOTE. There were already in IE II some trends of adjective specialization, with the use of suffixes, vocalism, accent, and sometimes inflection, which changed a noun to an adjective and vice versa .

5.2. The Motion

5.2.1. In accordance with their use, adjectives distinguish gender by different forms in the same word, and agree with the nouns they define in gender, number and case. This is the Motion of the Adjective.

5.2.2. We saw in § 3.4. that there are some rare cases of Motion in the noun. Sometimes the opposition is made between nouns, and this seems to be the older situation; as, pat r - m&amp;#257;t r , bhr tēr - swés&amp;#333;r .

But an adjective distinguishes between masculine, feminine and neuter, or at least between animate and neuter (or inanimate). This opposition is of two different kinds:

a. Animates are opposed to Inanimates by declension, vocalism and accent; as, - os /- om , - is /- i , - nts /- nt , - &amp;#275;s /- es .

b. The masculine is opposed to the feminine, when it happens, by the stem vowel; as, - os /- &amp;#257; , - nts /- ntia (or - nt&amp;#299; ), - us /- u&amp;#299; .

The general system may be so depicted:

Animates

Inanimates

Maskuline

Feminine

Neuter

1.

- os

- ā

- om

2.

- is

- is

- i

3.

- nts

- nti /- nt ī

- nt

4.

- ē s

- ē s

- es

5.

- us

- u ī

- u

NOTE. The masculine-feminine opposition is possibly new to Late PIE, IE II –as the Anatolian dialects show – had probably only an Animate-Inanimate opposition. The existence of this kind of adjectives is very important for an easy communication as, for example, the adjectives in - ā are only feminine (unlike nouns, which can also be masculine). An o stem followed by an - s in Nom. Sg. is animate or masculine, never feminine only, whilst there are still remains of feminine nouns in - os .

5.2.3. Compare the following examples:

1. 1. For the so-called thematic adjectives , in - ós , - , - óm , cf. kaikós , - , - óm , blind (cf. Lat. caecus , Gk. &amp;#954;&amp;#945;&amp;#953;&amp;#954;&amp;#943;&amp;#945; , a north wind ), akrós , - , - óm , sour , newós , - &amp;#257; , - om , new , rudhrós , - &amp;#257; , - om , red , koilós , - , - óm , empty (cf. Gk. κοιλ ς, maybe also Lat. caelus, caelum ), elnghrós , - , - óm , light (cf. Gk. λαφρ ς), etc.

2. 2. For adjectives in - ús , - u , - ú , cf. sw&amp;#257;dús , - u , - ú , sweet , mreghús , - u , - ú , brief , lchús , - u , - ú , light , tnús , - u , - ú , stretched , mldús , - u , - ú , soft , &amp;#333;kús , - u , - ú , quick . Other common examples include &amp;#257;sús , good , bhanghús , dense , gherús , small, bad , car ( &amp;#257;w ) ús , heavy , dalkús , sweet , dansús , dense , dhanghús , quick , laghús , light , maldús , soft , pnghús , thick , tegús , fat , dense , tanghús , fat , obese , udhús , quick , immediate , etc.

5.3. Adjective Specialization

5.3.1. The specialization of adjectives from nouns is not absolute, but a question of grade, as eg

1. 1. Stems in - nt are usually adjectives, but they were also assimilated to the verb system and have become (Present) Participles.

2. 2. Words in - ter are nouns, and adjectives are derived usually in - triós and others.

3. 3. Nouns in - ti have adjectives in - tikós , which usually has an ethnic meaning.

4. 4. Sometimes distinction is made with alternating vowels: neuters in - om and adjectives in - s , - és .

The accent is normally used to distinguish thematic nouns in - os with adj. in - ós (mainly - tós , - nós ).

NOTE. There are sometimes secondary processes that displace the accent from an adjective to create a noun; cf. Gk. leukós , “ white” , léukos , “ white spot ”. These correlations noun-adjective were often created, but from some point onward the derivation of adjectives was made with suffixes like - ment (- uent ), - jo , - to , - no , - iko , etc. There are, however, abundant remains of the old identity between noun and adjective in IE III and therefore in Modern Indo-European. An example of the accent shift is that of Eur ō p - ai - o -, which as an adjective is Eur ō paiós , Eur ō pai , Eur ō paióm , while as a noun the accent is shifted towards the root.

5.4. Comparison of Adjectives

5.4.1. In Modern Indo-European, as in English, there are three degrees of comparison: the Positive, the Comparative and the Superlative.

NOTE. There weren’t degrees in the Anatolian dialects, and therefore probably neither in Middle PIE. It is therefore an innovation of IE III, further developed by each dialect after the great IE migrations.

5.4.2. The Comparative is generally formed by adding - - , which has variants - ijó - and - ison ; as in sen - iós (Lat. senior ), older , meg - iós , bigger (cf. “ major ”), etc.

5.4.3. The same suffix is the base for the Superlative - istó - (from - is - to - ); as in mreghwistós , briefest , newistós , newest , etc.

O ther dialectal Superlative suffixes include: O.Ind. and Gk. - tero - , Gk. - tm - to - (Gk. tato , cf. O.Sla., O.Ind. * prījót m ̥ os ) O.Ind. - tmo - , Ita. and Cel. - mo - , - smo - , - tmo - , and extended - is - smo - , - uper - mo - , Lat. summus < súp - mos ; Skr. ádhamas , Lat. infimus < &amp;#324;dh - mos ;  lat. maximus < mág - s - mos ; lat. intimus (cf. intus )< én -/ n - t - mos , innermost . These are all derivatives of the suffix - mós , ie, [ mos ] or [ m ̥ os ]. The suffix is also present in other adjectives, but it took usually the Superlative degree.

5.4.4. It is interesting to point out that both suffixes, - io - (also - tero - ) and - is - to - , had probably an original nominal meaning. Thus, the elongations in - ios had a meaning; as in Latin, where junióses and senióses were used for groups of age; or those in - teros , as m&amp;#257;térter&amp;#257; , aunt on the mother's side , ekw teros , mule .

NOTE 1. Probably forms like junióses are not the most common in IE, although indeed attested in different dialects; actually adjectival suffixes - iós , - istós are added  to the root (in e-grade) without the initial suffixes, while - teros and - tmós are added with the suffixes. Compare eg O.Ir. sír , cp. sía < s&amp;#275;iós , ‘ longus, longior ’; lán ( pl&amp;#275;nus cf. línnumerus’ ), cp. lia < pl&amp;#275;iós (Lat ploios , Gk. pléos ); cf. Lat. ploirume , zero-grade Lat. maios , O.Ir. mía . So, for júwenes we find Umb. cp. jovie <* jowi&amp;#275; - s , O.Ir. óaciuuenis’ , óa 'iunior' ; óam 'iuuenissimus' , O.Ind. yu ́ va ( n )- ( y&amp;#363; ́ nah ̣ ),  cp. ya ́ vīyas -, sup. ya ́ vis ̣ t ̣ a - h ̣ .

NOTE 2. In Latin (and Germanic), as already said, the intervocalic - s - becomes voiced, and then it is pronounced as the trilled consonant, what is known with the name of rhotacism. Hence Lat. iuniores and seniores .

5.5. Numerals

5.5.1. Classification of Numerals

Modern Indo-European Numerals may be classified as follows:

I. Numeral Adjectives:

1. 1. Cardinal Numbers, answering the question how many? as, óinos , one ; dwo , two , etc.

2. 2. Ordinal Numbers, adjectives derived (in most cases) from the Cardinals, and answering the question which in order? as, p r ̥̄ wos , first ; álteros , second , etc.

3. 3. Distributive Numerals, answering the question how many at a time? as, sémni , one at a time ; dwíni (also dwísnoi ), two by two , etc.

II. Numeral Adverbs, answering the question how often? as, s m ís , once ; dwis , twice , etc.

5.5.2. Cardinals and Ordinals

1. 1. These two series are as follows, from one to ten : [155]

Cardinal

Eng.

Ordinal

Eng.

1 .

óinos , óin ā , óinom

one

p r ̥̄ wós

first

2 .

dwó , dw , dwói

two

alterós ( dwoterós )

second

3 .

tréjes , tresrés / trisóres , tr ī

three

triós , trit ( i ) ós

third

4 .

qétwor ( qetwóres , qetwesóres , qetw r )

four

qturós , qetw r tós

fourth

5 .

p é nqe

five

pnqós , penqtós

fifth

6 .

s ( w ) eks ( weks )

six

(* suksós ), sekstós

sixth

7 .

s é ptm / sept ḿ

seven

septmós

seventh

8 .

ókt ō ( u )

eight

okt ō wós

eighth

9 .

n é wn

nine

nownós , neuntós

ninth

10 .

d é km / dek ḿ

ten

dekmós , dekmtós

tenth

NOTE. The Ordinals are formed by means of the thematic suffix - o , which causes the syllable coming before the ending to have zero grade. This is the older form, which is combined with a newer suffix - to . For seven and eight there is no zero grade, due probably to their old roots.

2. 2. The forms from eleven to nineteen were usually formed by copulative compounds with the unit plus - dekm , ten . [156] Hence Modern Indo-European uses the following system:

Cardinal

Ordinal

11.

óindekm

oindekm ( t ) ós

12.

dwódekm

dwodekm ( t ) ós

13.

trídekm

tridekm ( t ) ós

14.

qetw ŕ dekm

qeturdekm ( t ) ós

15.

penqédekm

penqedekm ( t ) ós

16.

séksdekm

seksdekm ( t ) ós

17.

sept ḿ dekm

septmdekm ( t ) ós

18.

okt dekm

okt ō dekm ( t ) ós

19.

new ń dekm

newndekm ( t ) ós

3. 3. The tens were normally formed with the units with lengthened vowel/sonant and a general - kmtā /- komt ( a ) [157] , “group of ten ”, although some dialectal differences existed . [158]

Cardinal

Ordinal

20 .

( d ) w ī k ḿ t ī

( d ) w ī kmt ( m ) ós

30.

tr ī kómt ( )

tr ī komtós

40.

qetw r ̥̄ kómt ( )

qetw r ̥̄ komtós

50.

penq kómt ( )

penq ē komtós

60.

s ( w ) ekskómt ( )

sekskomtós

70.

sept kómt ( )

sept komtós

80.

okt ō kómt ( )

okt ō komtós

90.

newnkómt ( )

newnkomtós

100 .

( sm ) k m tóm

kmtom ( t ) ós

1000.

túsnt ī , ( sm ) ghéslo -

tusntitós

4. 4. The hundreds are made as compounds of two numerals, like the tens, but without lengthened vowel. The thousands are made of the numerals plus the indeclinable túsnt&amp;#299; :

Cardinal

Ordinal

200.

dwok ḿ t ī

dwokmtós

300.

trik ḿ t ī

trikmtós

400.

qetwrk ḿ t ī

qetwrkmtós

500.

penqek ḿ t ī

penqekmtós

600.

seksk ḿ t ī

sekskmtós

700.

septmk ḿ t ī

septmkmtós

800.

okt ō k ḿ t ī

okt ō kmtós

900.

newnk ḿ tom

newnkmtós

2000.

dwo / dwéi / dw ō túsnt ī

dwo tusntitói , dwéi tusntit s , dw ō tusntitóm

3000.

tréjes / trisóres / tr ī túsnt ī

tréjes tusntitói , trisóres tusntit s , tr ī tusntitóm

NOTE 1. These MIE uninflected cardinals are equivalent to most European forms; as, for two hundred , Lat. quingenti , Gk. πεντακόσια , and also Eng. five hundred , Ger. fünfhundert , Russ. пятьсот , Pol. pięćset , Welsh pum cant , Bret. pemp-kant . Inflected forms, such as modern Indo-European dialectal Da. fem hundrede , Fr. cinq cents , It. cinquecento , Spa. quinientos , Pt. quinhentos , Sr.-Cr. petsto (f. pet stotina ), etc. are left for the ordinals in this Modern Indo-European system.

NOTE 2. In Germanic the hundreds are compounds made of a substantive “ hundred ”, MIE k ḿ t ( m ) - radhom , Gmc. khund(a)-ratham , vs, but we have chosen this – for us more straightforward – European form, found in Italic, Balto-Slavic and Greek.

5. 5. The compound numerals are made with the units in the second place, usually followed by the copulative - qe :

f. ( d ) w&amp;#299;k ḿ óin&amp;#257; ( - qe ), twenty (and) one ; m. trikómt a qétwor (- qe ), thirty (and) four ; etc.

NOTE. Alternative forms with the unit in the first place are also possible in Modern Indo-European, even though most modern European languages think about numeric compounds with the units at the end. In fact, such lesser used formation is possibly the most archaic, maybe the original PIE form. Compare eg for “ twenty-one ” (m.):

MIE ( d ) w&amp;#299;k ḿ óinos (- qe ), as Eng. twenty-one , Swe. tjugoett , Nor. tjueen , Ice. tuttugu og einn , Lat. uiginti unus (as modern Romance, cf. Fr. vingt-et-un , It ventuno , Spa. veintiuno , Pt. vinte e um , Rom. douăzeci şi unu ), Gk. είκοσι &amp;#941;&amp;#957; , Ltv. divdesmit viens , Russ. двадцать &amp;#1086;&amp;#1076;&amp;#1080;&amp;#1085; , Pol. dwadzieścia jeden , etc.

For óinos ( d ) w ī k ḿ t ī qe , maybe the oldest form, compare Gmc. (as Ger. einundzwanzig , Du. eenentwintig , Fris. ienentweintich , Da. enogtyve ), and Lat. unus et uiginti , Skr. éka vi śati , Bret. unan-warn-ugent , etc.

6. 6. In compounds we find:

sm -, one-; du - (or dw - followed by vowel), dwi -, two-; tri -, three-; q ( e ) tur -, four-

5.5.3. Declension of Cardinals and Ordinals

Of the Cardinals only óinos , dwo , tréjes (and dialectally qétwor ), as well as ( sm ) gheslós , are declinable.

a. The declension of óinos , - &amp;#257; , - o m has often the meaning of same or only . The plural is used in this sense; but also, as a simple numeral, to agree with a plural noun of singular meaning. The plural occurs also in phrases like óinoi alterói - qe , one party and the other ( the ones and the others ).

b. The declension of sem - (and o-grade s ō m -), one , is as follows:

PIE sem - / som - , one

NOM .

se ms

s&amp;#333;ms

ACC .

sémm

s mm

GEN .

smós

somós

D .- A .

s m éi

soméi

L .- I .

smí , s é mi

somí/s mi

c. Dwo , two , and tréjes , three , are thus declined:

dwo

trejes

m.

n.

f.

m.

f.

n.

NOM .

dwo

dwói

dw ā

tréjes

tr ī

ACC .

dwom

dwói

dw ā m

trims

tr ī

GEN .

dwósio

dwés ā s

tríjom

D .- A .

dwósmei

dwési ā i (>*- ei )

tríbhios

LOC .

dwósmi

dwési ā i

trísu

INS .

dwósm ō

dwési ā

tríbhis

NOTE. ámbho , both , is sometimes declined like dwo , as in Latin.

d. Túsnt&amp;#299; , a thousand , functions as an indeclinable adjective:

túsntī módois , in a thousand ways . kom túsnt&amp;#299; w rōis , with a thousand men

e. The ordinals are adjectives of the Fourth and Third Declensions, and are regularly declined.

6.3.2. Cardinals and Ordinals have the following uses:

a. In numbers below 100, if units precede tens, the number is generally written as one word; as in f. dw&amp;#257; ( d ) w&amp;#299;k ḿ tīqe , twenty one ; otherwise it is separated: ( d ) w&amp;#299;k ḿ dw&amp;#257; (- qe ).

b. In numbers above 100 the highest denomination generally stands first, the next second, etc., as in English; as, 1764, túsnt&amp;#299; septmk ḿ t&amp;#299; sekskómta qétwor (- qe ) , or túsnt&amp;#299; septmk ḿ t&amp;#299; qétworsekskómtqe .

NOTE. Observe the following combinations of numerals with substantives:

wīk ḿ óinos (- qe ) w r ō s , or wīk ḿ w r ō s óinosqe , 21 men .

dwo túsnti penqek ḿ tī trídekm cénās , 2513 women .

c. The Proto-Indo-European language had no special words for million , billion , trillion , etc., and these numbers were expressed by multiplication. In Modern Indo-European they are formed with IE common loan from Italic s ghéslī (cf. Ita. * (s)m í gh ē > O.Lat. m&amp;#299;h&amp;#299;l&amp;#299; > Lat. mille ), a derivative of s m + ghéslos meaning “ a thousand ”; as, s mgh é s liōn , million , dw igh é s liōn , billion , tr igh é s liōn , trillion , etc. For the word milliard , one thousand million , s mghes liárdos can also be used.

d. Fractions are expressed, as in English, by cardinals in the numerator and ordinals in the denominator. The feminine gender is used to agree with pártis , part , either expressed (with adjective) or understood (nominalized): two-sevenths , dw séptm&amp;#257;i (or dw séptm i pártes ); three-eighths , tréjes októw&amp;#257;i (or tréjes oktow i pártes ).

One-half is ( dwi ) medhj pártis or ( dwi ) médhjom .

NOTE. When the numerator is one, it can be omitted and pártis must then be expressed: one-third , trit pártis ; one-fourth , qetwrt pártis .

5.5.4. Distributives

1. 1. Distributive Numerals are usually formed with the zero-grade forms and the suffix - ni .

NOTE. These answer to the interrogative qóteni? , how many of each? or how many at a time?

1.

sémni , one by one

20.

( d ) w i k ḿ t ī ni

2.

dwí ( s ) ni , two by two

21.

( d ) w i k ḿ t ī ni sémni - qe , etc.

3.

trí ( s ) ni , three by three

30.

tr ī k ḿ tni

4.

qtúrni

40.

qetwrk ḿ tni

5.

pnqéni

50.

penqek ḿ tni

6.

sék ( s ) ni (older * suksni )