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1.Indo-European Languages | 2.Indo-European Words | 3.Indo-European Nouns | 4.Indo-European Verbs | 5.Indo-European Syntax | 6.Indo-European Etymology 1.Indo-europeiska språk | 2.Indo-europeiska ord | 3.Indo-europeiska svenska | 4.Indo-europeiska Verb | 5.Indo-europeiska Syntax | 6.Indo-europeiska Substantiv

2. 2. Letters and Sounds Brev och Sounds

2.1 The Alphabets of Modern Indo-European 2,1 De alfabetsstorlek Modern indo-europeisk

2.1.1. 2.1.1. Unlike other languages reconstructed in the past, Indo-European doesn’t have an old writing system to be revived with. Till skillnad från andra språk rekonstrueras i det förflutna, indo-europeisk har en gammal skrift system som skall återupplivas med. Indo-European dialects have adopted different alphabets during the last millennia, and all of them should be usable today – although the main alphabet for today’s European Union is clearly the Latin one. Indo-europeisk dialekter har antagit olika alfabet under de senaste årtusenden, och alla av dem bör vara användbart i dag - även om de största alfabetet för dagens EU är klart det latinska.

2.1.2. 2.1.2. This is a summary table of Proto-Indo-European phonemes and their regular corresponding letters in MIE alphabets: Greek, Latin, Cyrillic, Perso-Arabic and (alphasyllabary) Devan āgarī . Detta är en sammanfattande tabell över Proto-Indo-European fonem och att de regelbundet motsvarande bokstäverna i MIE alfabet: grekiska, latinska, kyrilliska, Perso-arabiska och (alphasyllabary) Devan āgarī.

A. Vowels and Vocalic Allophones A. vokaler och Vocalic Allophones

Phoneme Fonem

Greek Grekisk

Latin Latin

Persian Persiska

Armenian Armeniska

Cyrillic Kyrilliska

Devan. Devan.

[ a ] [A]

Α α Α α

A a Aa

Ա ա Ա ա

А а А а

[ e ] [E]

Ε ε Ε ε

E e E e

Ե ե Ե ե

E e E e

[ o ] [O]

Ο ο Ο ο

O o O o

Ո ո Ո ո

О о О о

[ ] []

Ᾱ ᾱ Ᾱ ᾱ

Ā ā Â â

ا

Ա ա Ա ա

Ā ā Â â

[ ] []

Η η Η η

Ē ē Ē Ē

Է է Է է

Ē ē Ē Ē

[ ] []

Ω ω Ω ω

Ō ō Ō ō

Ո ո Ո ո

Ō ō Ō ō

[ i ] [I]

Ι ι Ι ι

I i I I

Ի ի Ի ի

И и И и

[ ] []

Ῑ ῑ Ῑ ῑ

Ī ī Ī ī

ی ی

Ի ի Ի ի

Ӣ ӣ Ӣ ӣ

[ u ] [U]

Υ υ Υ υ

U u U u

Ւ ւ Ւ ւ

У у У у

[ ] []

Ῡ ῡ Ῡ ῡ

Ū ū Ū ū

و و

Ւ ւ Ւ ւ

Ӯ ӯ Ӯ ӯ

[ r ̥ ] [R ̥]

Ρ ρ Ρ ρ

R r R R

ر

Ռ ռ Ռ ռ

Р р Р р

( ) (ॠ)

[ l ̥ ] [L ̥]

Λ λ Λ λ

L l L l

ل ل

Լ լ Լ լ

Л л Л л

( ) (ॡ)

[ m ̥ ] [M ̥]

Μ μ Μ μ

M m M m

م م

Մ մ Մ մ

М м М м

[ n ̥ ] [N ̥]

Ν ν Ν ν

N n N n

ن ن

Ն ն Ն ն

Н н Н н


B. Consonants and Consonantal Sounds B. konsonanter och Consonantal Sounds

Phoneme Fonem

Greek Grekisk

Latin Latin

Persian Persiska

Armenian Armeniska

Kyrillik Kyrillik

Devan. Devan.

[ p ] [P]

Π π Π π

P p P p

پ پ

Պ պ Պ պ

П п П п

[ b ] [B]

Μπ μπ Μπ μπ

B b Bb

ب

Բ բ Բ բ

Б б Б б

[ b h ] [B h]

Β β Β β

Bh bh Bh bh

ﺏﻌ بع

Բհ բհ Բհ բհ

Бь бь Бь бь

[ t ] [T]

Τ τ Τ τ

T t T t

/ ت / ط

Տ տ Տ տ

Т т Т т

[ d ] [D]

Ντ ντ Ντ ντ

D d D d

د

Դ դ Դ դ

Д д Д д

[ d h ] [D h]

Δ δ Δ δ

Dh dh Dh dh

ذ ذ

Դհ դհ Դհ դհ

Дь дь Дь дь

[ k ] [K]

Κ κ Κ κ

K k K K

ک ک

Կ կ Կ կ

К к К к

[ g ] [G]

Γγ γγ Γγ γγ

G g G g

گ گ

Գ գ Գ գ

Г г Г г

[ g h ] [G h]

Γ γ Γ γ

Gh gh Gh gh

گﻌ گع

Գհ գհ Գհ գհ

Гь гь Гь гь

[ k w ] [K w]

Κ κ  ( Ϙ ϙ ) Κ κ ϙ)

Q q Q q

ق ق

Ք ք Ք ք

К’ к’ К "к"

[ g w ] [G w]

Γκ γκ  Omicron Γκ γκ Omicron

C c C c

غ

Ղ ղ Ղ ղ

Г’ г’ Г "г"

[ g wh ] [G wh]

Γχ γχ Γχ γχ

Ch ch Ch ch

غ ع

Ղհ ղհ Ղհ ղհ

Гь’ гь’ Гь "гь"

[ i ̯ ] [I ̯]

Ι ι Ι ι

J j, I i J j, jag i

ی / ژ ی / ژ

Յ յ, Ի ի Յ յ, Ի ի

Й й ( Ј ј), И и Й й ј), И и

[ u ̯ ] [U ̯]

Υ υ ( Ϝ ϝ ) Υ υ ϝ)

W w, U u V V, U u

و و

Ւ ւ Ւ ւ

У у У у

[ r ] [R]

Ρ ρ Ρ ρ

R r R R

ر

Ռ ռ Ռ ռ

Р р Р р

[ l ] [L]

Λ λ Λ λ

L l L l

ل ل

Լ լ Լ լ

Л л Л л

[ m ] [M]

Μ μ Μ μ

M m M m

م م

Մ մ Մ մ

М м М м

[ n ] [N]

Ν ν Ν ν

N n N n

ن ن

Ն ն Ն ն

Н н Н н

[ s ] [S]

Σ σ ς Σ σ ς

S s S s

س

Ս ս Ս ս

С с С с

2.1.2. 2.1.2. The Latin Alphabet used for Modern Indo-European is similar to the English, which is in turn borrowed from the Late Latin abecedarium . Det latinska alfabetet används för Moderna indo-europeisk liknar den engelska, vilket i sin tur lånat från Late Latin abecedarium. We also consider some digraphs part of the alphabet, as they represent original Proto-Indo-European sounds, in contrast to those digraphs used mainly for transcriptions of loan words. Vi anser också vissa digraphs del av alfabetet, eftersom de representerar ursprungliga Proto-Indo-European låter, i motsats till dem digraphs används huvudsakligen för transkriptioner av lånord.

NOTE 1. Not 1. The Latin alphabet was borrowed in very early times from a Greek alphabet and did not at first contain the letter G. The letters Y and Z were introduced still later, about 50 BC Det latinska alfabetet har lånats i mycket tidig gånger från grekiska alfabetet och inte i första innehåller bokstaven G. Bokstäverna Y och Z infördes ännu senare, omkring 50 f.Kr.

NOTE 2. OBS 2. The names of the consonants in Indo-European are as follows - B , be (pronounced bay ); Bh , bhe ( b h ay ); C , ce ( g w ay ); C h , c he ( g wh ay ); D , de ( day ); Dh , dhe ( d h ay ); F , ef ; G , ge ( gay ); Gh , ghe ( g h ay ); H , ha ; K , ka ; L , el ; M , em ; N , en ; P , pe ; Q , qu ; R , er ; S , es ; T , te ; V , ve ; W , wa ; X , xa ( cha ); Z , zet . Namnen på konsonanter i indo-europeisk är följande - B, BE (uttalas viken), Bh, bhe (b H er), C, CE (g w er), C h, c han (g wh er); D, de (dag), DH, dhe (d h er), F, EF, G, GE (gay), Gh, GHE (g h er), H, ha, K, du, L, el, M, em N, sv, P, pe, Q, qu, R, er; S, es, T, Te, V, ve, W, Närke, X, xa (cha); Z, ZET.

2.1.3. 2.1.3. The Latin character C originally meant [g], a value always retained in the abbreviations C . (for Gaius ) and Cn . (for Gnaeus ). Den latinska tecken C ursprungligen tänkt [g], ett värde alltid kvar i den förkortningar C. (Gaius) och KN. (För Gnaeus). That was probably due to Etruscan influence, which copied it from Greek Γ , Gamma , just as later Cyrillic Г , Ge . Det var förmodligen på grund av etruskisk inflytande, som kopierade från grekiska Γ, Gamma, precis som senare kyrillisk Г, GE.

NOTE 1. Not 1. In early Latin C came also to be used for [k], and K disappeared except before in a few words, as Kal . I början latin C kom också att användas för [k], K försvunnit utom före i några få ord, som Kal. ( Kalendae ), Karthago . (Kalendae), Karthago. Thus there was no distinction in writing between the sounds [g] and [k]. Således fanns det ingen skillnad skriftligen mellan ljuden [g] och [k]. This defect was later remedied by forming (from C, the original [g]-letter) a new character G . Detta fel har senare avhjälpts genom att bilda (från C, originalet [g]-brev) en ny karaktär G. Y and Z were introduced from the Greek about 50 BC, and occur mainly in loan words in Modern Indo-European. Y och Z infördes från den grekiska omkring 50 f.Kr., och förekommer främst i lånord i moderna indo-europeiska.

NOTE 2. OBS 2. In Modern Indo-European, C is used (taking its oldest value) to represent the Indo-European labiovelar [g w ] in PIE words, while keeping its different European values –  [k], [ts], [ce], [tch], etc. – when writing proper names in the different modern IE languages. I moderna indoeuropeiska, C används (med sin äldsta värde) att företräda den indo-europeiska labiovelar [g w] i PIE ord samtidigt hålla sina olika europeiska värden - [k], [ts], [ce], [ tch] osv - när du skriver korrekt namn i olika moderna IE språk.

2.1.4. 2.1.4. The Latin [u ̯ ] sound developed into Romance [v]; therefore V no longer adequately represented [u ̯ ] and the Latin alphabet had to develop an alternative letter. The Latin [u ̯] sound utvecklats till Romance [v]; därför V inte längre tillräckligt representerade [u ̯] och det latinska alfabetet var tvungen att utveckla en alternativ skrivelse. Modern Indo-European uses V mainly for loan words, representing [v], while W is left for the consonantal sound [u ̯ ]. Modern indo-europeisk använder V huvudsakligen för lånord, som företräder [v], medan W lämnas för consonantal sund [u ̯].

NOTE. OBS. V originally denoted the vowel sound [u] ( oo ), and F stood for the sound of consonant [ u ̯ ] (from Gk. ϝ , digamma). V ursprungligen betecknade den vokal ljudet [u] (oo) och F stod för ljudet av konsonant [u ̯] (från GK. Ϝ, Digamma). When F acquired the value of our [f], V came to be used for consonant [ u ̯ ] as well as for the vowel [u]. När F förvärvade värdet av våra [f], V kom att användas för konsonant [u ̯] samt för vokal [u].

2.1.5. 2.1.5. The consonant cluster [ks] was in Ancient Greece written as Chi 'X' (Western Greek) or Xi 'Ξ' (Eastern Greek). Den konsonant klustret [ks] var i antikens Grekland skrivs som Chi "X" (Western grekiska) eller Xi "Ξ" (Östra grekiska). In the end, Chi was standardized as [kh] ([x] in modern Greek), while Xi represented [ks]. I slutändan Chi var standardiserade som [kh] ([x] i nygrekiska), medan Xi företrädd [ks]. In MIE, the X stands for [x], as in the Greek and Cyrillic alphabets, and not as in English. I MIE, X står för [x], som i det grekiska och det cyrilliska alfabetet, och inte som i engelska.

Cuadro de text: Figur 53. Skriva system i världen idag.Alfabet NOTE. OBS. The Etruscans took over X from Old Western Greek, therefore it stood for [ks] in Etruscan and then in Latin, and also in most languages which today use an alphabet derived from the Roman, including English. The Etruscans tog över X från Old Western grekiska, därför att det stod för [ks] i Etruscan och sedan i latin och även i de flesta språk som i dag använder ett alfabet härstammar från den romerska, däribland engelska.

2.2. 2,2. Classification of Sounds Klassificering av Sounds

2.2.1. 2.2.1. The Vowels are a , e , i , o , u , and ā , ē , ī , ō , ū . Vokalerna är a, e, i, o, u, och ā, ē, ī, ō, ū. The other letters are Consonants. De andra bokstäver är konsonanter. The proper Indo-European Diphthongs are ei , oi , ai , ēi , ōi , āi , and eu , ou, au, ēu , ōu , āu . En väl indo-europeisk Diphthongs är ei, oi, AI, ē i, ō i, ā i, och EU, ou, au, ē u, & # 333; u, ā u. In these diphthongs both vowel sounds are heard, one following the other in the same syllable. I dessa diphthongs både vokal ljud hörs, en efter den andra i samma stavelse.

2.2.2. 2.2.2. Consonants are either voiced (sonant) or voiceless (surd). Konsonanter är antingen tonande (sonant) eller tonlös (Surd). Voiced consonants are pronounced with vocal cords vibration, as opposed to voiceless consonants, where the vocal cords are relaxed. Voiced konsonanter uttalas med stämband vibrationer, i motsats till tonlös konsonanter, där stämband är avslappnad.

a. a. The voiced consonants are b , bh , d , dh , g , gh , c , ch , l , r , m , n , z , and j , w . Den tonande konsonanter är b, bh, d, dh, g, gh, c, ch, l, r, M, N, z, j, w.

b. b. The voiceless consonants are p , t , k , q , f , h , s , x . Den tonlös konsonanter som p, t, k, q, f, h, S, X.

c. c. The digraphs bh , dh , gh and ch represent the prope Indo-European voiced aspirates, whereas ph , th , and kh are voiceless aspirates, mostly confined to foreign words, usually from Greek. Den digraphs bh, dh, gh och din företräda grundlig indo-europeiska uttryck aspirates, medan ph, th, kh är tonlös aspirates, oftast begränsad till utländska ord, vanligen från grekiska. They are equivalent to p+h , t+h , k+h , ie to the corresponding mutes with a following breath, as in English loo p - h ole , ho t - h ouse , blo ck - h ouse . De är likvärdiga med p + h, t + H, K + h, dvs till motsvarande mutes med följande andetag, som på engelska Loo p - h Ole, ho t - h Ouse, blo ck - h Ouse.

d. d. The consonants r , l , m , n , and the semivowels j and w , can function both as consonants and vowels, ie they can serve as syllabic border or center. De konsonanter r, L, M, N, och semivowels j och w, kan fungera både som konsonanter och vokaler, dvs de kan tjäna som stavelsebildande gränsen eller center. There is a clear difference between the vocalic allophones of the semivowels and the sonants, though: the first, i and u , are very stable as syllabic center, while r ̥ , l ̥ , m ̥ , n ̥ aren’t, as they cannot be pronounced more opened. Det finns en tydlig skillnad mellan vocalic allophones av semivowels och sonants dock: den första, i och u, är mycket stabil som stavelsebildande center, medan r ̥, l ̥, m ̥, n ̥ inte, eftersom de inte kan uttalas mer öppnas. Hence the big differences in their evolution, depending on the individual dialects. Därav det stora skillnader i utvecklingen beroende på den enskilda dialekter.

2.2.3. 2.2.3. The Mutes are also classified as follows: Den Mutes är också klassificeras enligt följande:

Labials Labials

p , b , bh p, b, bh

Dentals Dentals

t , d , dh t, d, dh

Velars Velars

k , g , gh ; q , c , c h k, g, gh, q, C, C h

2.2.4. 2.2.4. The Liquids are l , r . De vätskor l, r. These sounds are voiced. Dessa ljudet är tonande. The group rh represents the aspirated [r], mainly in words of Greek origin. Gruppen rh representerar aspirerade [r], främst i ord av grekiskt ursprung. Other groups include rr , the alveolar trill, and its aspirated counterpart rrh . Andra grupper är rr, alveolar drilla, och dess aspirerade motsvarighet rrh. There is also lj , the palatal lateral approximant. Det finns också Maximilian, Palatal lateral approximant.

2.2.5. 2.2.5. The Nasals are m , n . Den nasaler är M, N. These are voiced. Dessa är tonande. The pair nj represents the palatal nasal (similar to the [n] sound in English onion or canyon ). Den pair nj representerar Palatal nasal (liknande de [n] Ljud på engelska lök eller canyon).

2.2.6. 2.2.6. The Fricatives are s , h . Den frikativorna är s, h. These are voiceless, but for the s before voiced consonants, where it is usually voiced. Dessa är tonlös, men för er innan tonande konsonanter, där den vanligtvis uttryck. It is also possible to write – mainly for loan words – voiceless and voiced pairs: labiodentals, f and v ; dentals, th and dh ; post-alveolar sh and zh . Det är också möjligt att skriva - främst för lånord - tonlös och tonande parvis: labiodentals, f och v; dentals, th och dh; post-alveolar sh och zh. And also the alveolar voiced z , and the dorsal voiceless x . Och även alveolar tonande z, och ryggdelen tonlös x.

2.2.7. 2.2.7. The Semivowels are found written as i , j and u , w . Den Semivowels finns skrivet som I, J och u, w. These are voiced. Dessa är tonande.

NOTE. OBS. The semivowels are usually written with i and u when using the Latin alphabet. Den semivowels vanligtvis är skriven med i och u när du använder det latinska alfabetet. Only Proto-Indo-European roots and their derivatives have j and w ; as in wĺqos , wolf , wérdhom , verb , jugóm , yoke , or tréjes , three . Endast Proto-Indo-europeiska rötter och derivat har j och w, som i wĺqos, varg, wérdhom, verb, jugóm, ok, eller tréjes, tre. When there is a consonantal sound before a sonant, it is always written j or w ; as in néwn [‘ne- u ̯ n ̥ ], nine . När det finns en consonantal ljud innan en sonant, det är alltid skriftliga j eller w; som i néwn [ne-u ̯ n ̥], nio. For more on this, see § 2.9.4 . För mer om detta, se § 2.9.4.

2.2.8. 2.2.8. There are also some other frequent compounds, such as ks , ts , dz , tsh , dzh , ... Det finns också några andra täta föreningar, såsom ks, ts, dz, TSH, dzh, ...

Phonet. Phonet. System System

Labials Labials

Coronals Coronals

*Palatovelars * Palatovelars

Velars Velars

Labiovelars Labiovelars

*Laryngeals * Laryngeals

Voiceless Tonlös

p p

t t

* k j * K j

k k

k w k w

Voiced Voiced

b b

d d

* g j * G j

g g

g w g w

Aspirated Aspirerade

b h b H

d h d H

* g jh * G jh

g h g h

g wh g wh

Nasals Nasals

m m

n n

Fricatives Frikativorna

s , ( z ) s, (z)

* h 1 , * h 2 , * h 3 * H 1, * h 2, * h 3

Liquids Vätskor

r , l r, l

Approximant Approximant

u ̯ u ̯

i ̯ i ̯

NOTE 1. [ z ] was already heard in Late Proto-Indo-European, as a different pronunciation of [s] before voiced consonants, and because of that it is an alternative writing in MIE, as in PIE nízdos (for - sd - os ), nest , which comes from PIE roots ni , down , and zero-grade of sed , sit . Not 1. [Z] var redan hört i Late Proto-indoeuropeiska, som en annan uttalet av [s] före tonande konsonanter, och på grund av att det är ett alternativ att skriva i MIE, som i PIE nízdos (för - sd -- Os), rede, som kommer från PIE rötter ni, ned, och noll-grade för sed, sitta.

NOTE 2. OBS 2. The existence of a distinctive row of PIE ‘satemizable’ velars, the so-called palatovelars, has been the subject of much debate over the last century of IE studies. Förekomsten av en särskild rad med PIE "satemizable" velars, den så kallade palatovelars, har varit föremål för mycket debatt under det senaste århundradet av IE studier. Today the question is, however, usually deemed solved, with a majority of scholars supporting only two types of velars – generally Velars and Labiovelars, although other solutions have been proposed. Idag Frågan är dock i regel anses löst, med en majoritet av forskarna stöder bara två typer av velars - allmänt Velars och Labiovelars, även om andra lösningar har föreslagits. The support of neogrammarians to the ‘palatals’, as well as its acceptance in Brugmann’s Grundriss and Pokorny’s Lexikon, has extended the distinction to many (mainly etymological) works, which don’t deal with the phonological reconstruction problem directly. Stödet från neogrammarians till "palatals", samt dess acceptans i Brugmann s Grundriss och Pokorny's Lexikon, har förlängt skillnaden att många (främst etymologiskt) verk, som inte hantera den fonologiska återuppbyggnaden problemet direkt. For more on this, see Appendix II.2. För mer om detta, se Appendix II.2.

NOTE 3. NOT 3. The symbols h 1 , h 2 , h 3 , with cover symbol H (traditionally ə 1 , ə 2 , ə 3 and ə ) stand for three hypothetical “laryngeal” phonemes. Symbolerna h 1, h 2, h 3, med täcka symbolen H (traditionellt ə 1, ə 2, ə 3 och ə) står för tre hypotetiska "laryngeal" fonem. There is no consensus as to what these phonemes were, but it is widely accepted that h 2 was probably uvular or pharyngeal, and that h 3 was labialized. Det finns ingen konsensus om vad dessa fonem var, men det är allmänt accepterat att h 2 var troligen Uvular eller pharyngeal, och att h 3 var labialized. Commonly cited possibilities are ʔ, ʕ, ʕ w and x, χ~ħ, x w ; there is some evidence that h 1 may have been two consonants, ʔ and h , that fell together. Anförs möjligheterna är ʔ, ʕ, ʕ w och x, χ ~ ħ, x w; det finns vissa tecken på att H 1 kan ha två konsonanter, ʔ och h, som föll samman. See Appendix II.3. Se bilaga II.3.

2.3. 2,3. Sounds of the Letters Ljud av bokstäverna

2.3.1 The following pronunciation scheme is substantially that used by those who spoke the Proto-Indo-European language within Europe in the end of the so-called III Stage, at the time when the phonetic trends usually called satemization were probably spreading. 2.3.1 Följande uttal system är väsentligt att användas av dem som yttrade sig den urindoeuropeiska inom Europa i slutet av den så kallade III skede, när fonetiska trender brukar kallas satemization har troligen sprids.

NOTE. OBS. MIE cannot permit dialectal phonetic differences – like the palatalization of velars in the Satem group –, because systematization in the pronunciation is especially needed when targeting a comprehensible language. MIE kan inte tillåta dialectal fonetiska skillnader - som det palatalization av velars i Satemspråk grupp - eftersom systematization i uttalet behövs särskilt när det riktar ett lättbegripligt språk.

2.3.2. 2.3.2. Vowels: Vokaler:

[ ]  as in father [] som i far

[ a ]  as in idea [A] som i tanken

[ ]  as in they [] som i de

[ e ]  as in met [E] som i uppfyllda

[ ]  as in meet [] som uppfyller

[ i ] as in chip [I] som i chip

[ ]  as in note [], not

[ o ]  as in pot [O] som i potten

[ ]  as in rude [] som i rude

[ u ]  as in put [U] som lagts

NOTE 1. Not 1. Following the laryngeals’ theory, Proto-Indo-European knew only two vowels, e and o, while the other commonly reconstructed vowels were earlier combinations with laryngeals. Efter laryngeals' teori, Proto-Indo-European visste endast två vokaler, e och o, medan andra vanligen rekonstruerade vokaler var tidigare kombinationer med laryngeals. Thus, short vowels a < *h 2 e, e < *(h 1 )e, o < *h 3 e and (h 1 )o , long vowels &amp;#257; < *eh 2 , &amp;#275; < *eh 1 , &amp;#333; < *eh 3 and *oh . Alltså, korta vokaler a <* h 2 e, e <* (h 1) e, o <* h 3 e och (h 1) o, långa vokaler &#257; <* eh 2, &#275; <* Eh 1, &#333; <* eh 3 och * oh. The output of * h 2 o was either a or o , after the different schools. Resultatet av * h 2 o var antingen en eller o, efter de olika skolorna. Short and long vowels and are just variants of the semivowels * j and * w . Korta och långa vokaler och är bara varianter av semivowels * j * w.

NOTE 2. OBS 2. The sonants may have been lengthened too (usually because of compensatory lengthenings), especially in the conjugation of verbs, giving thus [ r ̥ ] , [ l ̥ ] , [ m ̥ ] , [ n ̥ ] , written as r ̥̄ , l ̥̄ , m ̥̄ , n ̥̄ . The semivowels can also have a prolonged pronunciation, giving allophones ij and uw . Den sonants kan ha förlängts för (oftast på grund av kompensatoriska lengthenings), särskilt i konjugation av verb och ger därmed [r ̥ ], [l ̥ ], [m ̥ ], [n ̥ ], skrivs som r ̥̄, l ̥̄, m ̥̄, n ̥̄. semivowels kan också ha en långvarig uttal, ge allophones ij och uw. For more details on this see § 2.7.2 . För mer information om detta se § 2.7.2.

NOTE 3. NOT 3. It is recommended to mark long vowels with a macron, ¯ , and stressed vowels with a tilde, ´, and reduplicated stems without an original vowel are represented with an apostrophe, ‘ (as in Greek q’qlos , see qel ). Det rekommenderas att markera långa vokaler med en Macron, ¯, och betonade vokaler med ett tilde, "och reduplicated stjälkar utan en ursprunglig vokal är representerade med en apostrof, '(som i grekiska q'qlos, se qel).

2.3.3. 2.3.3. Falling Diphthongs and equivalents in English: Falling Diphthongs och motsvarigheter på engelska:

i as in vein jag som i ven

u e ( met ) + u ( put ) u e (uppfyllt) + u (sätta)

i as in oil jag som i olja

u as ow in know u som ow i know

i as in Cairo jag som i Kairo

u as ou in out och som ou i out

NOTE. Strictly speaking, j , j , j , as well as w , w , w (the so-called rising diphthongs) aren’t actually diphthongs, because j - and w - are in fact consonantal sounds. OBS. Strängt taget, j , j , j samt w , w , w (den så kallade stigande diphthongs) faktiskt inte diphthongs, eftersom j - och w - är i själva verket consonantal ljud . Nevertheless, we consider them diphthongs for syntax analysis; as in Eu - r ō - pa - io - , where the adjectival ending - io / i ̯ o/ is considered a diphthong. Däremot ser vi dem diphthongs för syntax analys, som i EU - r ō - PA - io - där adjektivisk slutar - io / i ̯ o / betraktas som en diftong.

2.3.4. 2.3.4. Triphthongs: Triphthongs:

There are no real triphthongs, as a consequence of what was said in the preceding note. Det finns ingen verklig triphthongs, som en konsekvens av vad som sades i föregående anmärkning. The formations usually called triphthongs are j i , j i , j i ; j u , j u , j u ; or w i , w i , w i ; w u , w u and w u ; and none can be named strictly triphthong, as there is a consonantal sound [i ̯ ] or [u ̯ ] followed by a diphthong. De formationer brukar kallas triphthongs är j I, J I, J i, j u, j u, j u, eller w i, w i, w i, w u, w u och w u, och ingen kan få namnet strikt triphthong, eftersom det finns en consonantal sund [i ̯] eller [u ̯] följt av en diftong. The rest of possible formations are made up of a diphthong and a vowel. Resten av tänkbara formationer består av en diftong och en vokal.

NOTE. Triphthong can be employed for syntax analysis, too. OBS. Triphthong kan användas för syntax analys, också. But a semivowel surrounded by vowels is not one. Men en Halvvokal omgiven av vokaler är inte en. Thus, in Eur &amp;#333; páiom , [ eu-r -‘pa - i ̯ om], European (neuter noun),  there aren't any triphthongs. Alltså, i EUR &#333; páiom, [eu-r - PA - i ̯ om], Europa (neutrum noun), det finns inga triphthongs.

2.3.4. 2.3.4. Consonants: Konsonanter:

1. b , d , h , k , l , m , n , p , are pronounced as in English. 1. B, d, h, K, L, M, N, P, uttalas på engelska.

Cuadro de text: Det finns flera sätt att generera breathy-tonande ljud, bland dem: 1. Att hålla stämband isär, så att de slapp som de är för [h], men att öka luftflödet så att de vibrerar löst. 2. För att stämband närmare varandra längs hela sin längd än i tonlös [h], men inte så nära som i modally tonande ljud som vokaler. Detta leder till ett luftflöde mellanliggande mellan [h] och vokaler, och i fallet med engelska intervocalic [h]. 3. För att sammandra de glottis, men skilja arytenoid brosk som kontrollerar ett slut. Detta resulterar i stämband görs tillsammans för framförandet i ryggen, men separerade för att tillåta passage av stora volymer av luft i fronten. Detta är situationen med Hindustani. 2. n can also be pronounced as guttural [ŋ] when it is followed by another guttural, as English sing or bank . 2. N kan också uttalas som guttural [ŋ] när den följs av ytterligare en guttural, som engelska sjunga eller bank.

3. t is always a plain t , never with the sound of sh , as in English oration or creation . 3. T är alltid en ren ton, aldrig med ljudet av SH, som på engelska oration eller skapande.

4. g always as in get . 4. G alltid som i få. It had two dialectal pronunciations, simple velar and palatovelar. Det hade två dialektala uttal, enkla velar och palatovelar. Compare the initial consonants in garlic and gear , whispering the two words, and it will be observed that before e and i the g is sounded farther forward in the mouth (more ‘palatal’) than before a or o . Jämför den inledande konsonanter i vitlök och redskap, viska de två orden, och det kommer att konstateras att före e och i de g är lät längre fram i munnen (mer "Palatal") än före en eller o.

5. c is pronounced similar to [g] but with rounded lips. 5. C uttalas som liknar [g] men med rundade läppar. Compare the initial consonant in good with those of the preceding example to feel the different articulation. Jämför den inledande konsonant i god med dem i föregående exempel att känna de olika artikulation. The voiceless q has a similar pronunciation to that of c , but related to [k]; as c in cool . Den tonlös q har samma uttal som C, men med anknytning till [k]; som c svalt.

6. j as the sound of y in yes , w as w in will . 6. J som ljudet av yja, w som W i viljan.

7.  Proto-Indo-European r was possibly slightly trilled with the tip of the tongue (as generally in Romance or Slavic languages), but other usual pronunciations of modern Indo-European languages have to be admitted in the revived language, as French or High German r . 7. Proto-Indo-European r var möjligen något trilled med tungspetsen (som i allmänhet i romanska och slaviska språk), men andra vanliga uttal av moderna indoeuropeiska språk måste vara upptagna i den återupplivade språk, som franska eller Höga tyska r.

8. s is voiceless as in sin , but there are situations in which it is voiced, depending on the surrounding phonemes. 8. S är tonlös som i synden, men det finns situationer där det är tonande, beroende på den omgivande fonem. Like the aforementioned [r], modern speakers will probably pronounce [s] differently, but this should not usually lead to misunderstandings, as there are no proper IE roots with original z or sh , although the former appears in some phonetic environments, vs Liksom de tidigare nämnda [r], moderna talare kommer förmodligen att uttala [s] annorlunda, men detta bör inte brukar leda till missförstånd, eftersom det inte finns någon riktig IE rötter med ursprungliga z eller sh, även om den förstnämnda verkar i vissa fonetiska miljöer, VS

9. bh , dh , gh , ch are uncertain in sound, but the recommended pronunciation is that of the Hindustānī's “voiced aspirated stops” bh, dh, gh , as they are examples of living voiced aspirates in an Indo-European language (see note). 9. Bh, dh, gh, du är osäker på ljudet, men det rekommenderade uttalet är det som Hindustānī "tonande aspirerade hållplatser" bh, dh, gh, eftersom de är exempel på levande uttryck aspirates i ett indo-europeiskt språk (se anmärkning). Hindustānī is in fact derived from Sanskrit, one of the earliest attested dialects of Late PIE. Hindustānī är i själva verket härstammar från sanskrit, ett av de tidigaste bestyrkas dialekter sen PIE.

10. x represents [x], whether with strong, ‘ ach-laut ’, such as kh in Russian Khrushenko, or ch in Greek Christós , or soft, with ‘ ich-laut ’, such as ch in German Kirche or Lichtenstein ; but never like ks , gz , or z , as in English. 10. X representerar [x], antingen med starka, "Ach-Laut", som kh i ryska Khrushenko, eller CH i grekiska Christós, eller mjuk, med "Ich-Laut", såsom ch i tyska Kirche eller Lichtenstein; men aldrig vilja ks, gz, eller z, som i engelska.

11. z , v , f , sh , are pronounced as in English. 11. Z, v, f, sh, uttalas på engelska.

12. zh is pronounced as in English leisure . 12. Zh uttalas som på engelska fritid.

13. tsh corresponds to English ch in chain , and tzh to j in jump 13. TSH motsvarar engelska ch i kedjan, och tzh till j i jump

14. 14. The aspirates ph , kh , th are pronounced very nearly like the English stressed p , c , t . Den aspirates ph, kh, th uttalas mycket nästan gillar den engelska betonade p, c, t.

15. 15. There is also another value for th , which corresponds to English th in thing , and for dh , which sounds as th in this . Det finns också ett annat värde för th, vilket motsvarar engelska th i sak, och för dh, det låter som th i detta.

16. rh , rr and rrh have no similar sounds in English, although there are examples of common loan words, such as Spanish guerrilla , or Greek rhotacism or Tyrrhenos . 16. RH, rr och rrh har inga liknande ljud på engelska, även om det finns exempel på gemensamma lånord, till exempel spanska gerillan, eller grekiska Rhotacism eller Tyrrhenos.

17. 17. The pronunciation of nj is similar to English onion or canyon ; and that of lj to English million . Uttalet av nj liknar engelska lök eller canyon, och det av Maximilian till engelska miljoner.

18. 18. Doubled letters, like ll , mm , tt , etc., should be so pronounced that both members of the combination are distinctly articulated. Fördubblats bokstäver, precis ll, mm, tt, osv, bör vara så uttalad att båda medlemmar i kombination är tydligt formulerad.

2.4. 2,4. Syllables Stavelser

2.4.1. 2.4.1. In many modern languages, there are as many syllables in a word as there are separate vowels and diphthongs. I många moderna språk, det finns lika många stavelser i ett ord som det finns skilda vokaler och diphthongs. This is not exactly so in Modern Indo-European. Detta är inte riktigt så i moderna indo-europeiska. It follows, indeed, this rule too: Det följer ju denna regel även:

Eu - r ō - pa - iós , wér - dhom [4] , - w&amp;#257;s 6 , ju - góm [5] . EU - r ō - PA - iós, wér - dhom [4], - w &#257; s 6, ju - góm [5].

NOTE. OBS. The semivowels [ u ̯] and [ i ̯] are in general written i and u , as we already said, when they are used in the formation of new words, ie, when they are not derived from PIE roots. Den semivowels [u ̯] och [i ̯] i allmänhet är skrivna i och u, som vi redan sagt, när de används i bildandet av nya ord, dvs när de inte härrör från PIE rötter. That is why the adjective European is written Eur ō paiós , not Eur ō pajós , and so its derived nominalized inanimate form, n. Eur ō páiom , the European (language) , or Itália , Italy and not Italja . Därför adjektivet europeisk skrivs Eur ō paiós, inte Eur ō pajós och så bearbetade nominalized livlös form, n. Eur ō páiom, Europeiska (språk), eller Itália, Italien och inte Italien. In Proto-Indo-European stems and in words derived from them they are written with j and w ; as, tréjes 155 , three , néwos 6 , new , g huwes [ ’dn ̥ -g h uu ̯ es], languages , etc. I Proto-Indo-European stjälkar och i ord som härstammar från dem de är skrivna med j och w; som, tréjes 155, tre, néwos 6, ny, g huwes [ 'dn ̥-g h uu ̯ es], språk, etc.

2.4.2. 2.4.2. Indo-European has also consonant-only syllables. Indo-europeisk har också konsonant-bara stavelser. It is possible to hear a similar sound in spoken English or German, as in Brighton [ ’brai-t n ̥ ] or Haben [ ’ha-b n ̥ ], where the final n could be considered vocalic. Det är möjligt att höra ett liknande ljud i talad engelska eller tyska, liksom i Brighton [ "brai-t n ̥] eller haben [ 'ha-b n ̥], där den slutliga n kunde anses vocalic. In this kind of syllables, it is the vocalic sonant (ie [ r ̥] , [l ̥] , [m ̥] or [n ̥] ) the one which functions as syllabic centre, instead of a vowel proper: I denna typ av stavelser, det är det vocalic sonant (dvs [r ̥], [l ̥], [m ̥] eller [n ̥]) den som fungerar som stavelsebildande centrum, i stället för en vokal korrekt:

bhrgh 128 [b h r ̥g h ], bury ; wĺqos 23 [ ’u ̯ l ̥ -k w os ] , wolf ; dékm 155 [’de- km ̥] , ten ; n mn 19 [ ’no( ) -m n ̥ ], name . bhrgh 128 [b h r ̥ g h], begrava, wĺqos 23 [ 'u ̯ l ̥-k w os], varg, dékm 155 [' de-km ̥], ti, n min 19 [ 'no () - m n ̥], namn.

NOTE 1. Not 1. Words derived from these vocalic consonants differ greatly in modern Indo-European languages. Ord från dessa vocalic konsonanter skiljer sig mycket i moderna indoeuropeiska språk. For example, g h w ā [’dn ̥ -g h u ̯ a :] (see dńghū -) evolved in Proto-Germanic as tung ō( n) , and later English tongue or German Zunge , while in archaic Latin it was pronounced dingwa , and then the initial d became l in Classic Latin lingua , which is in turn the origin of Modern English words “ linguistic” and “language” . Exempelvis g h w â [ 'dn ̥-g h u ̯ a:] (se dńghū -) utvecklats i Proto-Germanic så tung ō (n), och senare engelska tungan eller tyska Zunge, medan det i arkaisk latin det uttalades dingwa och sedan den inledande d blev l i klassiskt latin lingua, vilket i sin tur ursprung Moderna engelska orden "språkliga" och "språk".

NOTE 2. OBS 2. We maintain the old, difficult and somehow unstable vocalic sounds in search for unity. Vi upprätthåller gamla, svårt och något instabila vocalic ljud i sökandet efter enhet. As such a phonetic system is not easy for speakers of modern Indo-European languages, the proposed alternative pronunciation is to add, if needed, an auxiliary schwa [ ə ] before or after the sonant. Som sådan fonetiska system är inte lätt för talare av moderna indoeuropeiska språk, den föreslagna alternativa uttalet är att lägga till vid behov, en extraanställd Schwa [ə] före eller efter sonant. The schwa we are referring to is an unstressed and toneless neutral vowel sound. Den Schwa vi hänvisar till är en icke stressade och Toneless neutral vokal ljudet. There are usually two different possible pronunciations, depending on the position of the schwa; as in wĺqos , which can be pronounced [’ u ̯ ə lk w os], the way it probably evolved into Proto-Germanic * wulfaz , and [’ u ̯ l ə - k w os], similar to Proto-Greek * (w)lukos . Det finns vanligtvis två olika möjliga uttal, beroende på positionen för Schwa, som i wĺqos, som kan uttalas [ 'u ̯ ə s. w os], så det troligen utvecklats till Proto-Germanic * wulfaz, och [' u ̯ l ə - k w os], liknande Proto-grekiska * (w) lukos. Other possible examples are dékm [’de-k ə m] (cf. Lat. decem , Gmc. tekham ), and n mn [’no ( ) -m ə n] (cf. Lat. n&amp;#333;men , Gmc. namon ). Andra tänkbara exempel är dékm [ 'de-k ə m] (jfr Lat. Decem, Gmc. Tekham) och n mn [' no ()-m ə n] (jfr Lat. N &#333; män, Gmc. namon).

2.4.3. 2.4.3. In the division of words into syllables, these rules apply: I den uppdelning av ord i stavelser, dessa regler tillämpas:

1. 1. A single consonant is joined to the following vowel or diphthong; as - wos [6] , - dhjos [7] , etc. En enda konsonant är förbunden med följande vokal eller diftong, som - WOS [6], - dhjos [7], etc.

2. 2. Combinations of two or more consonants (other than the vocalic ones) are regularly separated, and the first consonant of the combination is joined to the preceding vowel; as ók - t&amp;#333; , eight , pén - qe , five , etc. but á - gros [8] , field , s - - los [9] , squalus . Kombinationer av två eller flera konsonanter (andra än de vocalic sådana) är regelbundet separerade, och den första konsonant i kombination är ansluten till den föregående vokalen, som ók - t &#333;, åtta, pén - qe, fem osv men á - Gros [8], fält, s - - los [9], Squalus.

3. 3. In compounds, the parts are usually separated; as Gmc. I föreningar, de delar som vanligen är åtskilda, som Gmc. loan-translation aq&amp;#257; - léndhom ( áqiā [10] + léndhom [11] ), island (“ water thing+land” ), as Gmc. auj &amp;#333; landom (cf. OE igland , ealand ), or Celtic ambh - ágtos ( ámbhi [12] + ag [13] ), ambassador (“ about+lead” ) , as Lat. ambactus , “ servant ”. Lånet-översättning aq &#257; - léndhom (áqiā [10] + léndhom [11]), ö ( "vatten sak + mark") som Gmc. auj &#333; landom (jfr OE Igland, ealand) Eller Celtic ambh - ágtos (ámbhi [12] + ag [13]), ambassadör ( "ca + bly"), såsom Lat. Ambactus, "tjänare".

2.5. 2,5. Quantity Kvantitet

2.5.1. 2.5.1. Syllables are distinguished according to the length of time required for their pronunciation. Stavelser kan särskiljas beroende på hur lång tid som krävs för deras uttal. Two degrees of Quantity are recognized, long and short . Två grader av Kvantitet är erkänd, långa och korta.

NOTE. OBS. In syllables, quantity is measured from the beginning of the vowel or diphthong to the end of the syllable. I stavelser, kvantitet mäts från början av vokal eller diftong till sista stavelsen.

2.5.3. 2.5.3.  A syllable is long usually, En stavelse är lång brukar,

a. a. if it contains a long vowel; as, - t r [14] , mother , d&amp;#324; - gh ūs 3 , language om det innehåller en lång vokal, som, - t r [14], mor, d &#324; - gh ūs 3, språk

b. b. if it contains a diphthong; as, Eu - r - p ā , Europe , léuk - tom [15] , light om den innehåller en diftong, som EU - r - p â, Europa, léuk - Tom [15], ljus

c. c. if it contains any two non-syllabic consonants (except a mute with l or r ) om det innehåller två icke stavelsebildande konsonanter (utom en stum med l eller r)

2.5.4. 2.5.4. A syllable is short usually, En stavelse är kort brukar,

a. a. if it contains a short vowel followed by a vowel or by a single consonant; as, c wós [16] [g w i ( ) - ‘u ̯ os], alive , or léusō [17] , loosen. om den innehåller en kort vokal följs av en vokal eller en enda konsonant, som, c wós [16] [g w i () - 'u ̯ os], levande, eller léusō [17], lossna.

b. b. if it contains a vocalic sonant; as, ŕtkos [18] [‘ r ̥ t-kos], bear , nōmn [19] [’n -m n ̥ ], dékm [’de-k m ̥ ]. om det innehåller en vocalic sonant, som, ŕtkos [18] [ 'r ̥ t-kos], björn, nōmn [19] [' n -m n ̥], dékm [ 'de-k m ̥].

2.5.5. 2.5.5. Sometimes a syllable varies in quantity, viz. Ibland kan en stavelse varierar i mängd, dvs. when its vowel is short and is followed by a mute with l or r , ie by pl , kl , tl ; pr , kr , tr , etc.; as, ág r ī 8 . när vokalen är kort och följs av en stum med l eller r, dvs med pl, kl, tl, pr, kr, tr, etc., som, ág r ī 8. Such syllables are called common . Sådana stavelser kallas gemensamt. In prose they are regularly short, but in verse they might be treated as long at the option of the poet. I prosa de regelbundet kort, men i vers de kan behandlas så länge på möjligheten av poeten.

NOTE. OBS. Such distinctions of long and short are not arbitrary and artificial, but are purely natural. Sådana distinktioner på lång och kort inte är godtyckliga och artificiella, men är helt naturliga. Thus, a syllable containing a short vowel followed by two consonants, as ng , is long , because such a syllable requires more time for its pronunciation; while a syllable containing a short vowel followed by one consonant is short , because it takes less time to pronounce it. Alltså, en stavelse innehåller en kort vokal följs av två konsonanter, som ng, är lång, eftersom en sådan stavelse kräver mer tid för sitt uttal, medan en stavelse innehåller en kort vokal följs av en konsonant är kort, eftersom det tar mindre tid att uttala det.

2.6. 2,6. Accent Accent

2.6.1. 2.6.1. There are stressed as well as unstressed words. Det finns betonade liksom icke stressade ord. The last could indicate words that are always enclitic, ie, they are always bound to the accent of the preceding word, as - qe [20] , and , - r [21] [ r ̥ ], for; while another can be proclitics, like prepositions. Det sista skulle kunna tyda ord som alltid enclitic, det vill säga, de är alltid bunden till det uttal av föregående ord, som - qe [20],, - r [21] [r ̥], för, medan en annan kan proclitics , Liksom prepositioner. The accent position can thus help to distinguish words. Tonvikten ställning kan således bidra till att skilja ord.

2.6.2. 2.6.2. In Modern Indo-European, each non-clitic word has one and only one accent. I moderna indoeuropeiska, varje icke-clitic "har en och endast en accent. The possibility of secondary accents depends on the pronunciation. Möjligheten att sekundära accenter beror på uttalet.

Verbs in Main Sentences, as well as Vocatives, appear to have had also different, not fixed accents. Verb i Main meningar, liksom Vocatives, tycks ha haft också olika, inte fasta accenter.

NOTE 1. Not 1. The attested stress of Indo-European dialects shows a great diversity: Germanic and Old Irish stressed the first syllable, Slavic and Greek had a ‘semifree’ accent, Latin and Armenian (as Albanian) stressed usually the penultimate, etc. Det intygas stress av indo-europeiska dialekter visar en stor variation: germanska och Gamla irländska betonade den första stavelsen, slaviska och grekiska hade en "semifree" accent, latin, armeniska (albanska) betonade oftast den näst sista etc.

NOTE 2. OBS 2. Baltic and Slavic dialects still show a Musical accent, while Greek and Sanskrit vocabulary seems to show remains of an old Musical accent. Baltiska och slaviska dialekter fortfarande visa en musikalisk accent, medan grekiska och sanskrit ordförråd verkar visa resterna av en gammal Musikalisk accent. In Proto-Indo-European (as in Latin) there are clear traces of syncopes and timbre variations of short vowels near the accentuated ones, what suggests that Indo-European maybe changed a Musical accent for an Intensive one. I Proto-Indo-European (som på latin) det finns tydliga spår av syncopes och timbre varianter av korta vokaler nära accentueras sådana, vad föreslår att indo-europeisk kanske förändrats en musikalisk accent för en intensiv sådan.

2.6.4. 2.6.4. The Stress is free, but that does not mean anarchy. Den Stress är gratis, men det betyder inte anarki. On the contrary, it means that each word has an accent, and one has to know – usually by way of practice – where it goes. Tvärtom, det betyder att varje ord har en accent, och man måste veta - oftast i form av praxis - där det går.

NOTE. OBS. Unlike Latin (which followed the ‘penultimate rule’), or French, in which the last syllable is usually accentuated, or Polish, Finnish, etc. Indo-European stress is (at least partly) unpredictable. Till skillnad från latin (som följt den "näst sista regeln") eller franska, där den sista stavelsen brukar accentueras eller polska, finska, etc. indo-europeisk stress är (åtminstone delvis) oförutsägbar. Rather, it is lexical: it comes as part of the word and must be memorized, although orthography can make stress unambiguous for a reader, and some stress patterns are ruled out. Snarare är det lexikala: det kommer som en del av ordet och måste memorerade, trots orthography kan göra stress entydigt för en läsare, och en del stress mönster är uteslutet. Otherwise homophonous words may differ only by the position of the stress, and therefore it is possible to use stress as a grammatical device. Annars homophonous ord kan skilja sig endast till den ståndpunkt som stress, och det är därför möjligt att använda stress som en grammatisk enhet.

2.6.5. 2.6.5. Usually, adjectives are accentuated on the ending; as in Eur ō paiós , European , Angliskós [22] , English , etc., while nouns aren't; as, Eur ō páios (maybe ‘purer PIE’ Eur ṓpaios , with root accent) , European , Ángliskos, English(man) . Vanligtvis är adjektiv är accentuerade på den slutade, som i Eur ō paiós, europeiska, Angliskós [22], engelska osv, medan svenska är inte, som, Eur ō páios (kanske "renare PIE" Eur ṓpaios, med rot accent ), Europeiska, Ángliskos, engelska (man). There are some other rules to be followed in the declension of nouns and in the conjugation of verbs, which will be later studied. Det finns några andra regler som skall följas i deklination av substantiv och i konjugation av verb, som kommer att bli senare studerats.

2.7. 2,7. Vowel Change Vokal Change

2.7.1. 2.7.1.  Syllable creation is the most common of the various phonetic changes that modern Indo-European languages have undergone all along these millennia of continuated change. Stavelse skapande är den vanligaste av de olika fonetiska förändringar som moderna indoeuropeiska språk har genomgått alla längs dessa årtusenden av continuated förändring. Anaptyxis is a type of phonetic epenthesis, involving insertion of a vowel to ease pronunciation. Anaptyxis är en typ av fonetisk epenthesis, som innebär införandet av en vokal för att underlätta uttalet. Examples in English are ath-e-lete , mischiev-i-ous , or wint-e-ry . Exempel på engelska är ath-e-lete, mischiev-i-ous, eller Wint-e-ry. It usually happens by adding first a supporting vowel or transition sound (glide or Gleitlaut ). Det inträffar oftast genom att lägga först en stödjande vokal eller övergång ljud (glida eller Gleitlaut). After this, in a second stage, the added vowel acquires a fix tone, becoming a full vowel. Efter detta, i en andra etapp kommer läggas vokal förvärvar en fix tonen, blir fullvärdig vokal.

2.7.2. 2.7.2. The sonants form unstable syllables, and thus vowel epenthesis is very common. Den sonants form instabila stavelser, och därmed Vowel epenthesis är mycket vanligt. For example, d&amp;#324; - gh w &amp;#257; becomes t u n-gō- in Germanic and d i n-gua in archaic Latin, while - qos [23] was pronounced w u l-qos (later wulfaz ) in Proto-Germanic and wl u -qos (later lukos ) in Proto-Greek. Till exempel, d &#324; - gh w &#257; blir t u n-gō-germansk och d i n-GUA i ålderdomliga latin, medan - QOS [23] uttalades w u l-QOS ( senare wulfaz) i Proto-Germanic och WL u-QOS (senare lukos) i Proto-grekiska.

The semivowels [i ̯ ], [u ̯ ] are more stable than sonants when they are syllable centres, ie [i] or [u]. Den semivowels [i ̯], [u ̯] är mer stabila än sonants när de stavelse, dvs [i] eller [u]. But they have also some alternating pronunciations. Men de har också några växlar uttal. When they are pronounced lento , they give the allophones [ii ̯ ] and [uu ̯ ], always written ij and uw . När de uttalade lento, att de i allophones [ii ̯] och [uu ̯], alltid skriftliga ij och uw.  Alternating forms like médhijos (which gives Lat. medius ), and médhjos (which gives O.Ind. mádhjas or Gk. &amp;#956;&amp;#941;&amp;#963;&amp;#963;&amp;#959;&amp;#962; ),  probably coexisted already in Late Proto-Indo-European. Alternating former gillar médhijos (som ger Lat. Medius), médhjos (som ger O. Ind. Mádhjas eller GK. &#956; &#941; &#963; &#963; &#959; &#962;), förmodligen samexisterade redan i slutet Proto-Indo-European.

NOTE. OBS. With the creation of zero-grade stems, vocalization appears, as the original radical vowels disappear and new ones are added. Med skapandet av noll-grade stjälkar, vocalization visas som de ursprungliga radikala vokaler försvinner och nya tillkommer. That happens, for example, in the PIE root bhr [24] - [ b h r ̥ ], carry , (cognate with English bear ), which can be reconstructed from IE languages as bher -, bhor - or bhr - . Det händer till exempel i PIE root bhr [24] - [b h r ̥], bära, (cognate med engelska björn), som kan rekonstrueras från IE språk som bher -, Bhor - eller bhr -. The same can be said of the semivowels [i ̯ ] and [u ̯ ] when they are syllable edges, being syllable centres [u] and [i] in zero-grades. Detsamma kan sägas om semivowels [i ̯] och [u ̯] när de stavelse kanter, därtill stavelse centrum [u] och [i] i noll-betyg.

2.7.3. 2.7.3. Laryngeals were probably aspirated phonemes (reconstructed as three to nine different sounds) that appear in most current reconstructions of Middle Proto-Indo-European – ie the one including the Anatolian subbranch. Laryngeals har troligen aspirerade fonem (rekonstrueras som tre till nio olika ljud) som visas i de flesta nuvarande rekonstruktioner av Middle Proto-Indo-European - dvs en däribland Anatolian subbranch. Some laryngeals are apparently directly attested in the Anatolian inscriptions. Några laryngeals är tydligen direkt bestyrkas i Anatolian inskriptioner. In the other Indo-European dialects known – all derived from IE III –, their old presence is to be seen mostly through the effects they had on neighboring sounds, and on patterns of alternation that they participated in. I de andra indo-europeiska dialekter kända - allt från IE III -, sina gamla närvaro ska ses främst genom de effekter de hade på angränsande ljud, och om mönster för växling som de deltagit i.

NOTE. OBS. Because such phonemes weren’t probably heard in Late Proto-Indo-European, and because their original phonetic values remain controversial, we don’t deem it useful to write them in a Modern Indo-European language system, but for the explanation of some alternating Late PIE roots or stems. Eftersom sådana fonem inte var förmodligen hört i Late Proto-indoeuropeiska, och eftersom deras ursprungliga fonetiska värden förblir kontroversiell vi inte bedömer det lämpligt att skriva dem i en modern indo-europeiskt språk, men för att förklara vissa alternerande Late PIE rötter eller stammar.

2.7.4. 2.7.4. Another vocalizations appear in PIE dialects in some phonetic environments, as two occlusives in zero-grade, impossible to pronounce without adding a vowel; as eg skp , which evolved as Lat. scabo or Got. skaban . En annan vocalizations visas i PIE dialekter i vissa fonetiska miljöer, som två occlusives i noll-grade, omöjligt att uttala utan att lägga till en vokal, som t.ex. SKP, som utvecklats på Lat. Scabo eller Got. Skaban. Although the dialectal solutions to such consonantal groups aren’t unitary, we can find some general PIE timbres. Även om dialektala lösningar på sådana consonantal grupper är inte enhetlig, kan vi hitta några allmänna PIE timbres. As a , i with a following dental (especially in Gk. and Bal.-Sla.) or u , also considered general, but probably influenced by the context, possibly when in contact with a labial, guttural or labiovelar, as in Greek reduplicate q’qlos [25] [‘k w -k w los], circle , wheel , from qel , move around , which is usually pronounced qúqlos . Som ett, med ett följande tandvård (särskilt i GK. Och Bal.-sla.) Eller u, ansåg även allmänhet, men förmodligen påverkas av sammanhang, eventuellt i kontakt med en Labial, guttural eller labiovelar, som i grekiska reduplicate q'qlos [25] [ 'k w-k w los], cirkel, hjul, från qel, flytta runt som brukar uttalas qúqlos.

2.7.5. 2.7.5. Vocalic prothesis (from Gk. προ-θεσις, pre-putting ), is the appending of a vowel in front of a word, usually to facilitate the pronunciation. Vocalic prothesis (från GK. Προ-θεσις, pre-sätta), är den adderande av en vokal framför ett ord, vanligen för att underlätta uttalet. Prothesis differ, not only among PIE dialectal branches, but also frequently within the same language or linguistic group. Prothesis skiljer sig, inte bara bland PIE dialektala grenar, men också ofta inom samma språk eller språkliga grupp. Especially before [ r ̥] , and before [l ̥ ] , [ m ̥] , [ n ̥] and [u ̯ ] , more or less systematically, a vowel is added to ease the pronunciation; as, &amp;#341;tkos 18 (maybe originally &amp;#341;tgos ), bear , which gives Lat. ursus (cognate with Eng. ursine ), Gk. Speciellt före [r ̥], och innan [l ̥], [m ̥], [n ̥] och [u ̯], mer eller mindre systematiskt, en vokal läggs för att underlätta uttalet, som, &#341; tkos 18 (kanske ursprungligen &#341; tgos), bär, som ger Lat. Ursus (cognate med Eng. ursine), GK. αρκτος (as in Eng. Arctic ) or Welsh arth (as in Eng. Arthur ). αρκτος (som i Eng. Arktis) eller walesiska arth (som i Eng. Arthur). The timbre of the added vowel is related neither to a linguistic group or individual language, nor to a particular phonetic or morphological environment. Den timbre av den tillsatta vokalen är relaterade varken till en språklig grupp eller enskilt språk eller till ett särskilt fonetiska och morfologiska miljön.

NOTE 1. Not 1. It is therefore not a good practice in Modern Indo-European to add such vowels in front of words, but, as seen in § 2.4.2., an additional auxiliary schwa [ ə ] could be a useful way to facilitate pronunciation. Det är därför inte en god praxis i moderna indo-europeisk lägga sådana vokaler framför ord, men så som i § 2.4.2., Ytterligare en extraanställd Schwa [ə] skulle kunna vara ett användbart sätt att underlätta uttalet.

NOTE 2. OBS 2. The different dialectal evolution of old difficult-to-pronounce words (like &amp;#341;tkos or w&amp;#314;qos ) can be explained without a need for more phonemes, just accepting that phonetic changes are not always due to an exact pattern or ‘sound law’. De olika dialektala utvecklingen av gamla svårast att uttala orden (som &#341; tkos eller w &#314; QoS) kan förklaras utan ett behov av mer fonem, bara att acceptera att fonetiska förändringar är inte alltid beror på en exakt mönster eller "bra lag".

2.7.6. 2.7.6. Syllable losses are often observed in Indo-European languages. Stavelse förluster är ofta observerats i indoeuropeiska språk. Syncope refers to the loss of an inner vowel, like brief vowels in Gothic; as, gasts from ghóstis [26] . Synkope hänvisar till förlust av en inre vokal, liksom korta vokaler i gotiska, som, gasts från ghóstis [26]. Also after [u ̯] , long vowel, diphthong or sonant in Latin; as, prudens for prowidens , corolla for coronala , or ullus instead of oinolos . Även efter [u ̯], lång vokal, diftong eller sonant i latin, som, prudens för prowidens, krona för coronala, eller någon i stället för oinolos.

Haplology, which consists of the loss of a whole syllable when two consecutive (identical or similar) syllables occur, as Lat. fastidium instead of fastitidium , or Mycenaean aporeu instead of apiporeu . Haplologi, som består av förlust av en hel stavelse när två (identiska eller liknande) stavelser förekomma, såsom Lat. Fastidium stället för fastitidium eller mykenska aporeu stället för apiporeu.

2.8. 2,8. Consonant Change Consonant Change

2.8.1. 2.8.1. The so called s-Mobile ( mobile pronounced as in Italian; the word is a Latin neuter adjective) refers to the phenomenon of alternating word pairs, with and without s before initial consonants, in stems with similar or identical meaning. Den så kallade s-Mobile (mobil uttalas som på italienska, ordet är latin neutrum adjektiv) hänvisar till fenomenet omväxlande "par, med och utan s före inledande konsonanter, i stjälkar med samma eller liknande innebörd. This “ moveable ” prefix s - is always followed by another consonant. Denna "rörliga" prefixet s - alltid följas av en annan konsonant. Typical combinations are with voiceless stops ( s ) p -, ( s ) t -, ( s ) k -, with liquids and nasals, ( s ) l -, ( s ) m -, ( s ) n -; and rarely ( s ) w -. Typiska kombinationer med tonlös hållplatser (s) p -, (s) t -, (s) k - med vätskor och nasaler, (s) -, (s) m -, (s) n - och sällan ( s) w -.

For example, Proto-Indo-European stem ( s ) táuros [27] , perhaps originally meaning bison , gave Greek ταυρος ( tauros ) and Old English steor (Modern English steer ), both meaning bull . Till exempel, Proto-Indo-European stam (s) táuros [27], kanske ursprungligen innebörden bison, gav grekiska ταυρος (tauros) och Old English steor (Modern English styra), båda betyder tjur. Both variants existed side by side in Late PIE, but whereas Germanic (aside from North Germanic) has preserved the form with the s mobile, Italic, Celtic, Slavic and others all have words for bull which reflect the root without the sibilant. Båda varianterna existerat sida vid sida i slutet PIE, men germansk (bortsett från North Germanic) har konserverat formen med s mobil, Kursiv, keltiska, slaviska och andra har alla ord för tjur som speglar roten utan Sibilant.

Such pairs with and without s are found even within the same language, as Gk. (s)tégos , “roof”, (s)mikrós , “ little ”, O.Ind. (s)tṛ, “star”, and so on. Sådana par med och utan er finns även inom samma språk, som GK. (S) tégos, "tak", (s) mikrós, "lite", O. Ind. (S) tṛ, "stjärna", och så på.


IE stem IE stam

Meaning Betyder

Example with - s Exempel med - s

without - s utan - s

( s ) kap - (S) kap --

tool verktyg

Gk. skeparnion GK. Skeparnion

Lat. capus Lat. Capus

( s ) kel - (S) kel --

crooked krokig

Ger. Schielen Ger. Schielen

Gk. kolon GK. Kolon

( s ) kep - (S) KEP --

cut, scrape styckas, skrapa

Eng. scab Eng. Skorv

Lat. capulare Lat. Capulare

( s ) ker - (S) ker --

cut klippa

Eng. shear, sheer Eng. Shear, idel

Lat. curtus Lat. Defekt

( s ) ker - (S) ker --

bend bend

Eng. shrink Eng. Krympa

Lat. curvus Lat. Curvus

( s ) kleu - (S) kleu --

close nära

Ger. schließen Ger. Schließen

Lat. claudere Lat. Claudere

( s ) qalo - (S) qalo --

big fish jättarna

Lat. squalus Lat. Squalus

Eng. whale Eng. Whale

( s ) leg - (S) leg --

slimy dyig

Eng. slack Eng. Slack

Lat. laxus Lat. Senare

( s ) lei - (S) lei --

slimy dyig

Eng. slime Eng. Slem

Lat. linere Lat. Linere

( s ) mek - (S) mek --

chin chin

Ir. smeach Ir. Smeach

Lat. maxilla Lat. Maxilla

( s ) melo - (S) melo --

small animal små djur

Eng. small Eng. Small

Gae. mial Game. Mial

( s ) neu - (S) neu --

tendon, sinew tendon, sena

Gk. neuron GK. Neuron

Skr. snavan Skr. Snavan

( s ) peik - (S) Peik --

magpie skata

Ger. Specht Ger. Specht

Lat. pica Lat. Pica

( s ) pek - (S) PEK --

spy, stare spy, stare

OHG spehon OHG spehon

Alb. pashë Alb. Pashë

( s ) plei - (S) plei --

split dela

Eng. split, splinter Eng. Split, Splinter

Eng. flint Eng. Flinta

( s ) perg - (S) Perg --

sparrow sparv

O.Eng. spearwa O. Eng. Spearwa

Lat. parra Lat. Parra

( s ) tea - (S) te --

stand stå

Lat. sto , Eng. stand Lat. Sto, Eng. Stand

Ir. ta Ir. Av

( s ) ten - (N) ti --

thunder åska

OHG donar OHG Donar

O.Sla. stenjo O. Sla. Stenjo

( s ) twer - (S) twer --

whirl virvel

Eng. storm Eng. Storm

Lat. turba Lat. Turba

NOTE 1. Not 1. For ( s ) ten , compare O.Ind. stánati , Gk. stén&amp;#333; , O.Eng. stenan , Lith. stenù , O.Sla. stenjo , and without s - in O.Ind. tányati , Gk. För (s) ti, jämför O. Ind. Stánati, GK. Stén &#333;, O. Eng. Stenan, Lith. Stenù, O. Sla. Stenjo, och utan s - i O. Ind. Tányati, GK. Eol. ténnei , Lat. tonare , OHG donar , Cel. Tanaros (name of a river). Eol. Ténnei, Lat. Tonare, OHG Donar, Cel. Tanaros (namnet på en flod). For ( s ) pek , cf. För (s) Pek, jfr. O.Ind. spá&amp;#347;ati , Av. spašta , Gk. skopós (< spokós ), Lat. spektus , OHG spehon , without s - in O.Ind. pá&amp;#347;yati , Alb. pashë . O. Ind. Spá &#347; ati, Av. Spašta, GK. Skopós (<spokós), Lat. Spektus, OHG spehon, utan s - i O. Ind. Pá &#347; Yati, Alb. Pashë. For PIE ( s ) ker , cf. För PIE (s) ker, jfr. O.Ind. ava -, apa - skara -, Gk. skéraphos , O.Ir. scar ( a ) im , ON skera , Lith. skiriù , Illyr. Scardus , Alb. hurdhë (<* skrd -), without s - in O.Ind. k náti , Av. k ə r ə ntaiti , Gk. keíro , Arm. kcorem , Alb. kjëth , Lat. caro , O.Ir. cert , ON horund , Lith. O. Ind. Ava -, CGR - Skara -, GK. Skéraphos, O.Ir. ärr (a) IM, OM skera, Lith. Skiriù, Illyr. Scardus, Alb. Hurdhë (<* skrd -) utan s -- i O. Ind. k náti, Av. k ə r ə ntaiti, GK. keíro, Arm. kcorem, Alb. kjëth, Lat. caro, O.Ir. cert, OM horund, Lith. kkarnà, O.Sla. kor ŭ c ŭ , Hitt. kartai -, and so on. kkarnà, O. Sla. kor ŭ c ŭ, HiTT. kartai - och så vidare.

NOTE 2. Some scholars believe it was a prefix in PIE (which would have had a causative value), while others maintain that it is probably caused by assimilations of similar stems – some of them beginning with an s -, and some of them without it. It is possible, however, that the original stem actually had an initial s , and that it was lost by analogy in some situations, because of phonetic changes , probably due to some word compounds where the last - s of the first word assimilated to the first s - of the second one. OBS 2. Vissa forskare tror att det var ett prefix i PIE (som skulle ha haft en orsakande värde), medan andra hävdar att det är sannolikt orsakad av assimilations av liknande stjälkar - några av dem som börjar på S - och några av dem utan det. Det är dock möjligt att den ursprungliga stammen faktiskt hade en inledande s, och att det var förlorat analogt i vissa situationer, på grund av fonetiska förändringar, förmodligen på grund av vissa "föreningar där den sista - eller av det första ordet som jämställs till den första s - i den andra en. That helps to explain why both stems (with and without s) are recorded in some languages, and why no regular evolution pattern may be ascertained (Adrados). Det hjälper till att förklara varför både stjälkar (med och utan s) är inspelad i vissa språk, och varför inga regelbundna utvecklingen mönster kan fastställas (Adrados).


2.8.2. 2.8.2. Before a voiced or aspirated voiced consonant, s was articulated as voiced, by way of assimilation; as, nízdos [28] [’niz-dos], nest , or mízdhos [’miz-d h os], meed, salary . When s forms a group with sonants there is usually assimilation, but such a trend is sometimes reversed by adding a consonant; as Lat. cerebrum , from kerésrom [29] .

2.8.3. The s between vowels was very unstable in PIE, evolving differently in individual dialects; as, snúsos [30] , daughter-in-law (cf. Lat. nurus , OHG snur ). The most common examples of these phonetic changes appear in PIE s stems, when followed by a vowel in declension; as nébh&amp;#333;s [31] , cloud , which gives OCS nebesa , Gk. n&amp;#949;&amp;#966;&amp;#941;&amp;#955;&amp;#951; , or gén&amp;#333;s [32] , race, stock, kind , which gives Lat. genus , generis .

2.8.4. A sequence of two dentals – as * tt , * dt , * tdh , * ddh , etc. – was eliminated in all Indo-European dialects, but the process of this suppression differed among branches, some earlier dialects (as Vedic) showing no change, some others an st or sdh , and others ss . This trend began probably in Middle PIE, and thus Late PIE speakers knew such evolutions, which we sum up into a common intermediate stage * st , * sdh , which was followed in early IE dialects, and probably known to the rest of them.

Examples in MIE are eg forms derived from PIE root wéid [33] , know, see , (cf. Lat. vid ē re , Gmc. w ī tan , Eng. wite ); as, pp w ( e ) istós , known, seen , from * w ( e ) id - -, (cf. O.Ind. vitta -, but Gmc. w ī ssaz , Lat. v ī sus , Gk. -( ϝ )ιστος , Av. vista -, O.Pruss. waist , O.Sla. ve ̌ st&amp;#1098; , O.Ir. rofess , etc.), which gives eg Latin ad w í stom , advice (Lat. ad visum ), or wísti o n , vision (Lat. v ī si ō ), in turn giving q&amp;#275;le w í sti o n [34] , television ; Greek wist r, wise, learned (man) , from Gk. στωρ ( h íst &amp;#333; r ) or ϝ στωρ ( wíst &amp;#333; r ), which gives wistorí&amp;#257; , history , from Gk. στορία ( h istoría ) ; imperative wéisdhi! , see! , as O.Lith. weizdi (from * wéid - dhi , cf. OCS infinitive viždo ), Sla. eghwéisti , certainly , as OCS izve ̌ st&amp;#1098; , etc.

2.8.5. The manner of articulation of an occlusive or sibilant usually depends on whether the next phoneme is voiced or voiceless. So eg voiced ag [35] , carry , gives voiceless ágtos [‘akt-os] (not reflected in MIE  writings), cf. Gk. ακτος ( aktos ) or Lat. actus . The same happens with voiced aspirates, as in legh [36] , lie (cognate to Eng. log ), giving Gk. &amp;#955;&amp;#949;&amp;#954;&amp;#964;&amp;#961;&amp;#959;&amp;#957; ( lektron ), Lat. lectus , OHG Lehter ; also, compare how voiceless p - becomes - b , when p&amp;#333;ds [37] , foot , is in zero-grade - bd -, as in Gk. επιβδα ( epibda ).

2.8.6. Some difficult consonantal compounds may be so pronounced in Modern Indo-European as to avoid them, imitating its modern use; as, klus ( sk ) &amp;#333; [38] [‘lu-s(k) ], listen (cf. Gmc. hluza , O.Ind. ś r&amp;#333; ́ s ̣ ati , O.Ir. cluas , Arm. lur , Toch. A klyo ṣ, Lith. kláusît , O.Bul. slušati , etc. ), from IE klew , hear ; ps&amp;#363;ghologí&amp;#257; [39] [s -g h o-lo-‘g i - ], psychology (as Gk. ψυχολογία, from Gk. ψυχ , MIE ps&amp;#363; - gh , for some IE * bhs - &amp;#363; - gh - ), smw&amp;#299;dikós [40] [su ̯ -di-’kos], sovietic (O.Rus. съв ѣ тъ, suvetu , for some * ksu -, loan-translation of Gk. συμβούλιον, sumboulion ), gn ti&amp;#333;n [41] [n -‘t i ̯ n], nation (as Lat. natio ), prksk [42] [prs-‘k /pors-‘k /pos-‘k ], ask, demand , inquire (cf. Skr. p cchati , Av. p ə r ə saiti , Pers. purs&amp;#275;dan , Lat. poscere , OHG forsk&amp;#333;n , Lith. &amp;#1088;&amp;#1077;ršù , O.Ir. arcu , Toch. pärk ), etc.

NOTE. Verbs like * klusin&amp;#257; , a loan translation of English ‘ listen’ (from IE klu - s -, listen , from klew , hear ), should be avoided if possible in Modern Indo-European, for the sake of proper communication, if there is another common PIE verb with the same meaning; in this case, the verb is cognate with other IE verbs derived directly from klus ( sk ) &amp;#333; , and therefore it is unnecessary to use the English tertiary formation shown. Such forms are too derived to be considered an Indo-European term proper; it would be like using Romance * m&amp;#257;turik&amp;#257;mi , get up early , loan-translating Spanish “ madrugar ”.

2.9. Peculiarities of Orthography

2.9.1. Indo-European words may show a variable orthography.

2.9.2. In many words the orthography varies because of alternating forms that give different derivatives; as in d mos [43] , house , but demspóts [44] [des-‘po-ts], master, lord, despot , as Gk. &amp;#948;&amp;#949;&amp;#963;&amp;#960;&amp;#972;&amp;#964;&amp;#951;&amp;#962; ( despót&amp;#275;s ), Skr. dampati , Av. d əṇ g pat&amp;#333;i š , (with fem . demspótnia , [des-‘po-nia]) or démrom , timber , as Gmc. temran , all from PIE root dem -/ d ō m -, house.

NOTE. The forms shown, Greek dems - pót - &amp;#257; , as well as Indo-Iranian dems - pót - is , are secondary formations derived from the original Proto-Indo-European form; compare, for an original PIE ending - t in compounds, Lat. sacerd&amp;#333;s <*- &amp;#333;ts , O.Ind. devastút -, “ who praises the gods ”, etc.

2.9.3. In other situations, the meaning is different, while the stems are the same; as, gher [45] , enclose, grasp , which gives ghórdhos / ghórtos , garden, enclosure, town (cf. Gmc. gardon , Lat. hortus , Gk. khortos , Phry. - gordum , O.Ir. gort , Lith. gardas , OCS gradu , Alb. garth , etc.), and gher [46] , bowels , fig. like, want , giving ghr dhus , hunger , etc.

2.9.4. In some cases, however, the grammatical rules of Modern Indo-European affect how a word is written. For example, the word Spániā 140 , Spain , could have been written Spánj&amp;#257; , or Brittáni&amp;#257; , Britain , Brittanj&amp;#257; ; but we chose to maintain the letter - i when possible. We write - j or - w only in some specific cases, to differentiate clearly the Proto-Indo-European roots from its derivatives:

NOTE. Modern English Britain comes from O.Fr. Bretaigne , in turn from L.Lat. Britannia , earlier Lat. Brittania , itself from Brítton , Briton , from Lat. Britto , Brittonem , from the Celtic name given to the Celtic inhabitants of Great Britain before the Anglo-Saxon invasion, MIE Britts , Briton . A more Germanic noun in Modern Indo-European would be Brittonléndhom , as it was known in Old English, Breten - lond , similar to the MIE term for “ England ”, Angloléndhom , vs .

1. In PIE roots and its derivatives; as, tréjes (possibly from earlier tri -), three , jugóm 5 (from jeug ), yoke , s wel 68 , sun , néwos , new , (probably from nu , now ), etc.  Therefore, PIE roots with different articulations of the semivowel [u ̯] , [ i ̯ ] can be written differently; as, neu - /nou -, shout , but part. now - ént -announcing ” (not nouent -), giving nówentios [‘no-u ̯ en-t i ̯ os], messenger , or nówentiom , message (from Lat. n ū ntius and n ū ntium ); also cei [47] , live , with variant cj ō - (not ci ō - ), giving cj iom [‘g w i ̯ - i ̯ om], being , animal , as Gk. &amp;#950;&amp;#974;&amp;#959;&amp;#957; ( z ō on ); it also gives variant cio - (and not cjo -), as in cíos , life , from Gk. &amp;#946;&amp;#953;&amp;#959;&amp;#962; , and hence ciologí&amp;#257; [g w i ̯ o-lo-‘gi-a], biology , (in compound with lógos 134 , from Gk. &amp;#955;&amp;#972;&amp;#947;&amp;#959;&amp;#962; ), and not cjologí&amp;#257; .

NOTE. This rule is also followed in declension; as, Nom. ówis 149 , Gen. owjós or Nom. pék 150 , Gen. pékwos .

2. In traditionally reconstructed stems with a semivowel; as serw , protect , (possibly from ser - [48] ), which gives extended sérw&amp;#257; , keep , preserve , and sérwos , slave , servant , or cei ( w ), live , from which zero-grade c wós , alive , living ; but cf. man [49] , man , which gives common mánus , and Gmc. mánuos , man , not manwos , and adjective manuiskós , human ; or Latin sítus , place (possibly but unlikely from PIE suffixed * tki - tus 77 ), is situ&amp;#257; , locate , situate , and not sitw&amp;#257; , etc.

NOTE. This rule is followed because of a) scarcely attested roots, whose origin is not straightforward – as serw -, which could be from PIE ser -, but could also be just an Etruscan borrowing, and b) Indo-European tradition.

3. In metathesized forms; as PIE neu [50] , tendon, sinew , which gives stems neuro -, and nerwo -, ie néurom , neuron , from Gk. νε ρον (as in abstract collective neur ), and nérwos , nerve , from Lat. neruus , possibly from Italic neurus .

NOTE. Following these first three rules, semivowels from Proto-Indo-European roots (whether inflected or not) should be clearly distinguished from the semivowels of derivatives extended in - uo -, - io -, - nu -, and so on.

4. When there is a consonantal sound before or after a sonant, whether a PIE root or not; as, néwn , nine ; st j [51] , fat , p w [52] , fire , p r ̥̄ wós 155 , first , perw tós [53] , rocky , etc. Also, in vowel+glide ; as in bháwtos [‘b h au ̯ -tos], a Greek loan translation (also as loan word ph tos ), whose original IE (genitive) form is bhauesós -> bhau ( e ) tós -> ph&amp;#333;tós ), hence Gk. φ ς, φωτ ς ( ph&amp;#333;s , ph&amp;#333;tós ).

NOTE. Graeco-Latin loans like bháwtos , photo , pórnos , porn , from pornogrbhós , pornograph , from porn , prostitute ; rewolútion , revolution , from O.Fr. revolution , itself from L.Lat. reuoluti&amp;#333; , for which Latin had originally res nouae ; or ghost lis , hotel , from Fr. hôtel , from L.Lat. hostalis , “ guest-house ”, from hostis , “ guest ”, for which Latin used deuersorium ; etc. Such loan words are common to most modern IE languages, especially within Europe, and may therefore be left so in MIE, instead of trying to use another common older Proto-Indo-European terms.

5. When the semivowel - i - is followed or preceded by another i , or the semivowel - u - is followed or preceded by another u ; as, dréuwos [54] , confidence , léuwā [55] , lag , bolijós [56] , big , etc.

NOTE. This happens usually in inflected forms of nouns and verbs ending in [i:] or [u:]; as, d&amp;#324;ghuwes , languages , bhruwés , of the brow , etc.

6. As a general exception, none of these rules should be followed in compounds, when the semivowel is the last sound of the first word; eg, for tri thlōn (from Gk. athlon , “ contest ”), triathlon, we won’t write trj thl ō n . Also, more obviously, Sindhueur ō páiom , and not Sindhweur ō páiom .

NOTE. In Modern Indo-European, compounds may be written with and without hyphen, as in the different modern Indo-European languages; for Sindhueur ō paiom / Sindhu - Eur ō paiom , compare Eng. Indo-European , Ger. Indoeuropäisch , Fr. Indo-européen , It., Sp. indoeuropeo , Gal.-Pt. Indo-européu , Cat. indoeuropeu , Du. Indo-Europees , Pol. indoeuropejski , Lit. indoeuropie&amp;#269;i&amp;#371; , Ir. Ind-Eorpach , Russ. &amp;#1080;&amp;#1085;&amp;#1076;&amp;#1086;&amp;#1077;&amp;#1074;&amp;#1088;&amp;#1086;&amp;#1087;&amp;#1077;&amp;#1081;&amp;#1089;&amp;#1082;&amp;#1080;&amp;#1081; , Gk. &amp;#953;&amp;#957;&amp;#948;&amp;#959;&amp;#949;&amp;#965;&amp;#961;&amp;#969;&amp;#960;&amp;#945;&amp;#970;&amp;#954;&amp;#942; ,  Ira. هندواروپایی , Hin. हिन्द-यूरोपीय , etc.

2.9.5. What many old PIE books reconstruct as [ ə ] or schwa is generally written and pronounced in Modern Indo-European with a simple a ; as, pat r [57] , father , for * ph 2 ter- , bhátis [58] , appearance , for * b h h 2 tis , or ána [59] , breath , for * anh 2 – from which derivatives MIE án a m&amp;#257;lis , animal , as Lat. animalis (affected by Ablaut because of the ‘penultimate rule’ of Classic Latin), MIE án a mos , wind , as Gk. νεμος, MIE án a ti , he breathes , as Skr. aniti , and so on.

NOTE. Academic works use traditionally this Schwa Indogermanicum to represent vowels of uncertain quality (and not neutral vowels) in Late PIE. It was observed that, while for the most part [a] in Latin and Ancient Greek corresponded to a in Sanskrit, there were instances where Sanskrit had [i] while Latin and Greek had [a], such as Skr. pitar vs. Lat. pater and O.Gk. &amp;#960;&amp;#940;&amp;#964;&amp;#949;&amp;#961; . These findings evolved into the theory of the so-called laryngeals. Most scholars of Proto-Indo-European would now postulate three different old phonemes rather than a single indistinct schwa. Some scholars postulate yet more, to explain further problems in the Proto-Indo-European vowel system. Most reconstructions of *- ə - in older literature would correspond to *- h 2 - in contemporary notation, and usually to - a - in Modern Indo-European simplified (Northwestern dialectal) writing and phonological system. See Appendix II.3 for more details on the reconstructed PIE laryngeals.

2.9.6. The forms with the copulative - qe 20 , and , and disjunctive - w , or , are usually written by adding it to the preceding word, as in Latin - que , but with a hyphen.

2.9.7. The capital letters are used at the beginning of the following kind of words:

a. the names of days [60] , months [61] , seasons [62] and public holidays; as, Januários , January , Sem , Summer , Newóm J rom , New Year , etc.

b. the names of people and places, including stars and planets; as, S wel , Sun , Dj us , God [63] , Teutiskoléndhom , Germany (loan-translated O.Ger. Diut-isk-lant , vi Compound Words §4.10).

c. people's titles, as Prōbhast r [64] , Professor , Kolumnélis [65] , Colonel , Disrēgt r [66] , Director , etc.

d. with N&amp;#341;tos or Skéuros , North [67] ; Súntos or Déksin&amp;#257; , South [68] ; Áustos , East [69] and Wéstos , West [70] and its derivatives. Also adjectives Nrtrós , Northern , Suntrós , Deksiós , southern , Austrós , eastern , Westrós or Wesperós , West .

e. in official or well-established place names; as Koloss om , Coliseum (from Lat. Coloss ē um , in turn from kolossós , Gk.  κολοσσός ) , Pláteiā [71] , the Square (from Lat. platea , from PIE pel , flat ), etc.

2.9.8. The vocallic allophones [ r ̥ ], [l ̥ ], [ m ̥ ], [ n ̥ ] may be written, as in Latin transliterations of Sanskrit texts, as , &amp;#7735; , &amp;#7747; , and &amp;#7751; , to help the reader clearly identify the sonants; therefore, alternative writings &amp;#7751;m&amp;#7771;tós , inmortal , k&amp;#7747;tóm , hundred , wód&amp;#7771; , water , etc. are also possible.

2.10. Kindred Forms

Compare the following Proto-Indo-European words and their evolution in Germanic dialects and in Latin, with their common derivatives in Modern English.

PIE

Proto-Gmc.

Gothic

O.Eng.

Latin

English (Lat.)

pater

fader

fadar

fæder

pater

father ( paternal )

septm

sebun

sibun

seofon

septem

seven ( September )

treb

thurpa-

þaurp

þorp

trabēs

thorp ( trabecula )

leb

lepjon

lep

lippa

labium

lip ( labial )

bhrater

brothar

broþar

broþor

frater

brother ( fraternal )

bher

beron

bairan

bera

ferre

bear ( infer )

wert

werthaz

wair þ an

weard

uertere

-ward ( versus )

trejes

thrijiz

þ reis

þrēo

tres

three ( trinity )

dekm

tekhan

taihun

ten,tien

decem

ten ( decimal ),

ed

etanan

itan

etan

edere

eat ( edible )

dh ē

d ō n

gadeths

dōn/do

facere

do ( factor ),

dhers

ders

gadars

dearr

festus

dare ( manifest )

leuk

leukhtam

liuhaþ

lēoht

lux

light ( lucid )

kerd

khertan

hairto

heorte

cor(d)

heart ( core )

aug

aukon

aukan

eacien

augere

eke ( augment )

gn ō

kunnan

kunnan

cunnan

(g)noscere

can ( notice )

ghostis

gastiz

gasts

gæst, giest

hostis

guest ( hostile )

bhergh

burgs

baurgs

burg, burh

fortis

borough ( force )

leiq

laikhwnjan

leihwan

lænan

linquere

lend ( relinquish )

qi / qo

khwi/khwa

hwi/hwa

hwilc / hwæt

qui/quo

why/what ( quote )

c em

kuman

qiman

cuman

uenire

to come ( venue )

c wos

kwi(k)waz

quis

cwicu

uīuus

quick ( vivacity )

le c h

l ī khtaz

leihts

l ī ht, lēoht

leuis

light ( levity )

c her

brennan

brinnan

beornan

fornus

burn ( furnace )


3. Words and their Forms

3.1. The Parts of Speech

3.1.1. Words are divided into eight Parts of Speech: Nouns, Adjectives (including Participles), Pronouns, Verbs, Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections.

3.1.2. A Noun is the name of a person, place, thing or idea: as, Angloléndhom , England (cf. OE Engla land , “ land of the Angles ”); wérdhom [72] , verb ; márkiā [73] , mare , bakt riom [74] , n.pl. bakt ria .

Names of particular persons and places are called Proper Nouns; other nouns are called Common.

NOTE. An Abstract Noun is the name of a quality or idea. A Collective Noun is the name of a group or a class.

3.1.3.  An Adjective is a word that attributes a quality; as, patrióm 57 , parental , bhel [75] , bright , Teutiskós [76] , German , entergnationālís [77] , international .

NOTE 1. A Participle is a word that attributes quality like an adjective, but, being derived from a verb, retains in some degree the power of the verb to assert.

NOTE 2. Etymologically there is no difference between a noun and an adjective, both being formed alike. So, too, all names originally attribute quality, and any common name can still be so used. Thus, R gi&amp;#257; 66 (or Cénis [78] ) Elísabhet II , Queen Elizabeth II (or Elízabhet , as Gk. Ελισ(σ)&amp;#945;&amp;#946;&amp;#949;&amp;#964; , from Hebrew Eli-sheva , “ God is an oath ”), distinguishes this Elizabeth from other Elizabeths , by the attribute expressed in the name R gi&amp;#257; / Cénis , Queen .

3.1.4. A Pronoun is a word used to distinguish a person, place, thing or idea without either naming or describing it: as, eg 161 , I ; twos 163 , your ; wéi 162 , we .

Nouns and pronouns are often called Substantives.

3.1.5. A Verb is a word capable of asserting something: as, bhér&amp;#333; , I carry, bear ; bh ti , it shines .

NOTE. In English the verb is usually the only word that asserts anything, and a verb is therefore supposed to be necessary to complete an assertion. Strictly, however, any adjective or noun may, by attributing a quality or giving a name, make a complete assertion; as, w ros [79] dwenós [80] ( ésti ) , the man (is) good , unlike dwenós w ros , the good man ; or áutom [81] ghōdhóm ( ésti ) , the car is good , unlike gh &amp;#333; dhóm áutom , the good car . In the infancy of language there could have been no other means of asserting, as the verb is comparatively of late development.

3.1.6. An Adverb is a word used to express the time, place, or manner of an assertion or attribute: as, per [82] , in front , épi [83] , near , ánti [84] , opposite .

NOTE. These same functions are often performed in Indo-European by cases of nouns, pronouns and adjectives, and by phrases or sentences.

3.1.7. A Preposition is a word which shows the relation between a noun or pronoun and some other word or words in the same sentence; as, eg, ad [85] , at , to , al [86] , beyond , de [87] , from , kom [88] , with , eghs [89] , out , upo [90] , up , and so on.

3.1.8. A Conjunction is a word which connects words, or groups of words, without affecting their grammatical relations: as, - qe , and ; - w [91] , or , - ma , but , - r , for .

3.1.9. Interjections are mere exclamations and are not strictly to be classed as parts of speech, and may vary among IE dialects; as, hej, haj, ( á ) hoj (greeting), hállo , hólla , (on the telephone); &amp;#333; (vocative); oh (surprise); ha ha (laugh); áu ( tsh ) (pain); etc.

NOTE. Interjections sometimes express an emotion which affects a person or thing mentioned, and so have a grammatical connection like other words.

3.2. Inflection

3.2.1. Indo-European is an inflected language. Inflection is a change made in the form of a word to show its grammatical relations.

NOTE. Some modern Indo-European languages, like most Germanic and Romance dialects, have lost partly or completely their earliest attested inflection systems – due to different simplification trends –, in nominal declension as well as in verbal conjugation.

3.2.2. Inflectional changes sometimes take place in the body of a word, or at the beginning, but oftener in its termination:

bhábhā [92] , the or a bean ; snichés [93] , of the snow ; ( eg ) wéghō [94] , I ride ; trātóme [95] , we crossed over ; d á te [96] , give ! (pl.)

3.2.3. Terminations of inflection had possibly originally independent meanings which are now obscured. They probably corresponded nearly to the use of prepositions, auxiliaries and personal pronouns in English.

Thus, in bháres - m [97] , the barley (Acc.), the termination is equivalent to “ the ” or “ to the ”; in bhléti [98] [b h l ̥ -‘e-ti], it blooms (Indicative), and bhl ti [b h l ̥ -‘ -ti] (Subjunctive), the change of vowel grade signifies a change in the mood.

3.2.4. Inflectional changes in the body of a verb usually denote relations of tense or mood, and often correspond to the use of auxiliary verbs in English:

( tu ) déresi [99] , (thou) tear or are tearing ; dóre , he tore ; ( ) gnōsketi [100] , he knows , gégona , I knew (see Verbal Inflection for Reduplication and its meaning )

3.2.5. The inflection of Nouns, Adjectives, Pronouns and Participles to denote gender, number and case is called Declension, and these parts of speech are said to be declined .

The inflection of Verbs to denote voice, mood, tense, number and person is called Conjugation, and the verb is said to be conjugated.

NOTE. Adjectives are often said to have inflections of comparison. These are, however, properly stem-formations made by derivations.

3.2.6. Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions and Interjections are not inflected, and together form the group of the so-called Particles .

3.3. Root, Stem and Base

3.3.1. The body of a word, to which the terminations are attached, is called the Stem. The Stem contains the idea of the word without relations; but, except in the first part of compounds (cf. Niteroléndhom [101] , the Low Land or Netherland , klaustro bhocíā [102] , claustrophobia , etc.), it cannot ordinarily be used without some termination to express them.

Thus the stem ka ( u ) put [103] - denotes head , hence also “ main ”; káput (without ending) means a head or the head , as the Subject or Agent of an action or as Vocative, as well as to a head or to the head , as the Direct Object; with - os it becomes kaputós , and signifies of a head or of the head , and so on.

NOTE. In inflected languages like Indo-European, words are built up from Roots, which at a very early time were possibly used alone to express ideas. Roots are then modified into Stems, which, by inflection, become fully formed words. The process by which roots are modified, in the various forms of derivatives and compounds, is called stem-building. The whole of this process is originally one of composition, by which significant endings are added one after another to forms capable of pronunciation and conveying a meaning.

3.3.2. A Root is the simplest form attainable by analysis of a word into its component parts. Such a form contains the main idea of the word in a very general sense, and is common also to other words either in the same language or in kindred languages.

NOTE. The reconstruction of the Proto-Indo-European language looks for a very old language, and this has an obvious consequence on the general assertion that roots don't mean anything. In fact, many reconstructed PIE roots mean something, even without adding a single ending. So, for example, the English word ‘ special’ has a root * spec (also root of words like speculate or species ) which expresses vaguely the idea of looking. In Modern Indo-European, however, the (Latin) adjective speki&amp;#257;lís , special , coexists with its original PIE root, the verb spek ( i&amp;#333; ), observe . Language evolution blurs the original meanings, and many roots had possibly ceased to be recognized as such before IE III - although less so than in modern languages. Consequently, sometimes (not very often) the reconstructed PIE roots which we use as independent words in Modern Indo-European actually lacked a proper meaning already in Late PIE; they are used because sometimes a common IE form is needed and only different words from the same root have been attested.

For example, the root of verb dém&amp;#333; , domesticate , is dem - [104] (or strictly * demh 2 ), which does not necessarily mean to domesticate , or I domesticate , or domesticating , but merely expresses vaguely the idea of domesticating , and possibly cannot be used as a part of speech without terminations – in fact, dem - (strictly [dem]) is another PIE root which means house , but is unrelated to the verb, at least in this IE III stage. With the ending - ti it becomes démeti , he / she / it domesticates .

3.3.3. The Stem may be the same as the root; as, sal - s [105] , salt , bhl ig - e - ti [106] , he / she / it shines ; but it is more frequently formed from the root.

1. By changing or lengthening its vowel: from root bhēl [107] , blow, swell , bh l - os , ball , or bhól - &amp;#257; , bullet , and bh&amp;#314; - os , bowl . Also [108] , divide , gives dái - m ō n , demon (from older Gk. daimon , divider, provider ), and d - m ō n , time, period (from Gmc. t ī m ō n , which gives O.Eng. t ī ma, ON timi , Swe. timme ; unrelated to Lat. tempus, MIE loan word témp ō s ).

2. By the addition of a simple suffix; as, bhér - &amp;#257; [109] , bear , lit. “ brown animal” , líno - m [110] , flax .

3. By two or more of this methods: chn - - s , ( chen [111] in zero-grade, with participial ending - to , and masculine ending), beaten , gón - i&amp;#257; - s , angles ( genus [112] , knee , in o-grade with ending - io -,  feminine in - &amp;#257; , plural in - s ).

4. By derivation and composition, following the laws of development peculiar to the language, which we will see in the corresponding chapters.

3.3.4. The Base is that part of a word which is unchanged in inflection: as, cherm - [113] in chermós , warm , eus - [114] in éus&amp;#333; , burn ; noch - [115] in nochetós , naked , etc.

a. The Base and the Stem are often identical, as in many consonant stems of nouns (as cer - in cers [116] , mount ). If, however, the stem ends in a vowel, the latter does not appear in the base, but is variously combined with the inflectional termination. Thus the stem of c us [117] , cow , is cou -; that of ármos [118] , arm , is armo -.

3.3.5. Inflectional terminations are modified differently by combination with the final vowel or consonant of the Stem, and the various forms of Declension and Conjugation are so developed.

3.4. Gender

3.4.1. The Genders distinguished in Modern Indo-European are three: Masculine, Feminine (both are referred to as Animate) and Neuter or Inanimate.

3.4.2. The gender of Indo-European nouns is either natural or grammatical .

Cuadro de texto: The masculine functions as the negative term in the opposition, i.e. when the gender is not defined, the masculine is used. This is a grammatical utility, one that is only relevant for concordance, and which has to do with the evolution of the language and its inflection.
The earliest PIE had probably no distinction of gender; when the inanimate appeared, it was marked by a different inflection, and the animates remained as the negative term in the opposition. After that, probably at the same time as the thematic declension (in -e/o) appeared, the feminine was differentiated from the remaining animates, with marks like the different stem vowel (usually -a) or vowel length (as -ī, -ū). Therefore, the feminine is the positive term of the opposition within the animates, because when we use it we reduce the spectrum of the animates to the feminine, while the masculine still serves as the negative (non-differentiated) term for both, the general and the animates, when used in this sense, i.e. when not differentiating the masculine from the other genders.
a. Natural Gender is distinction as to the sex of the object denoted: bhr tēr [119] (m.), brother ; cénā [120] (f.), woman, wife .

NOTE. Many nouns have both a masculine and a feminine form to distinguish sex: as, eur ō páios , eur ō pái ā , European (nominalized adjectives), or ékwos , ékw ā , horse, mare . [121]

NOTE 2. Names of classes or collections of persons may be of any gender. For example, ármat ā (f.), army ; from PIE ar , fit together (as in ármos , arm, upper arm, shoulder , cf. Gmc. armaz , Lat. armus , Gk. ρμ ς ); also g hóros (m.), choir, chorus, dancing ground , from PIE gher , grasp, enclose – loan translated from Gk. χορ ς, originally “ an special enclosure for dancing ” in its origin, cf. Gmc. gardaz , ghórdhos , or Lat. hortus , ghórtos , both meaning garden, yard, enclosure . [122]

b. Grammatical Gender is a formal distinction as to sex where no actual sex exists in the object. It is shown in the form of the adjective joined with the noun: as swādús [123] nóqtis [124] (f.), a pleasant night ; mreghús [125] kántos [126] (m.), brief song (“ singing ”). The gender of the adjective is simply a gender of concordance: it indicates to which noun of a concrete gender the adjective refers to.

3.4.3. The neuter or inanimate gender differs from the other two in inflection, not in the theme vowel. The gender of the animates, on the contrary,  is usually marked by the theme vowel, and sometimes by declension, vocalism and accent.

3.4.4. The neuter does not refer to the lack of sex, but to the lack of liveliness or life. Sometimes, however, animates can be designated as inanimates and vice versa .

While the distinction between masculine and feminine is usually straightforward, sometimes the attribution of sex is arbitrary; thus, different words for “ ship[127] or “ war[128] are found as feminine (as n us or wérsā ), masculine (as bhóids , or Greek loan pólemos ), and neuter ( wáskolom or cr ).

3.4.5. The animate nouns can have:

a. An oppositive gender, marked:

I. by the lexicon, as in pat r - māt r , father - mother , bhr tēr 119 - swésōr [129] , brother - sister , súnus [130] - dhúg ( a ) t&amp;#275;r [131] , son - daughter , etc. [132]

II. by the theme vowel, as in ékwos - ékwā 121 , horse - mare , wĺqos - wĺqia 23 , wolf - she-wolf .

III. by both at the same time, as in w ros 79 - cénā 120 , male - female .

b. An autonomous gender, that does not oppose itself to others, as in n us (f.), ship , p&amp;#333;ds (m.), foot , egnís (m.), fire , ówis (f.), sheep , jéwos [133] (n.) or lēghs (f.), law . [134]

c. A common gender, in nouns that are masculine or feminine depending on the context; as, dhesós , god / goddess (cf. Gk.Hom. θεός), c us , cow or bull (cf. Gk. accompanied by táuros , as Scient. Eng. bos taurus ), náutā , sailor , djousnalístā , journalist , stúdents [135] , student , etc.

d. An epicene gender, which, although being masculine or feminine, designates both sexes: as the feminine sūs [136] , pig , or masculine kákkā [137] , shit (as an insult).

3.4.6. The gender of a noun can thus be marked by the stem vowel (or sometimes by inflection), or has to be learnt: it is a feature of a word like any other. In its context, concordance is a new gender mark; a masculine noun has a masculine adjective, and a feminine noun a feminine adjective. However, not all adjectives differentiate between masculine and feminine, a lot of them (those in - i - s , - u - s , - &amp;#275;s , - &amp;#333;n , and many thematic in - os ) are masculine-feminine: only the context, ie the noun with which they agree, helps to disambiguate them. This happens also in nouns with a common gender.

3.4.7. Most endings do not indicate gender, as in pat r and m&amp;#257;t r . Only by knowing the roots in many cases, or by the context in others, is it possible to determine it. Some of the suffixes determine, though, totally or partially if they are masculine or feminine. These are the following:

1. - os marks masculine when it is opposed to a feminine in - &amp;#257; or - &amp;#299; /- i , as in ékwos - ékw&amp;#257; , w&amp;#314;qos - w&amp;#314;qi , dj&amp;#7703;us - djéw ī , etc . This happens also in adjectives in the same situation, as in néwos - néw&amp;#257; . In isolated nouns, - os is generally masculine, but some traces of the old indistinctness of gender still remained in the third stage of the Proto-Indo-European language, as in the names of trees (among others). In adjectives, when the ending - os is not opposed to feminine, concordance decides.

2. - &amp;#257; marks the feminine in oppositions of nouns and adjectives. It is usually also feminine in isolated nouns, in the first declension. But there are also traces of masculines in - &amp;#257; , as, &amp;#333;s á (or as Latin partial loan &amp;#333;r ), charioteer , driver (from ōs 116 , mouth , and ag 13 , drive ), Lat. auriga ; náut&amp;#257; , “ sailor” , as Gk. να της; or slúg&amp;#257; , servant , as O.Sla. sl ŭ ga , Lith. slaugaservice ”, O.Ir. sluag , “ army unit ”, etc.

3. - &amp;#299; /- i , is systematically feminine. It is used in nouns, and often in adjectives.

4. Finally, the roots ending in long vowels - &amp;#299; and - &amp;#363; are always feminines.

3.5. General Rules of Gender

3.5.1. Names of Male beings, and of Rivers, Winds, Months, and Mountains are masculine:

pat r 57 , father , Kárlos 1 , Charles , Réin [138] , the Rhine , Áustros 69 , south wind , Mágios 61 , May , Uráles , the Urals .

NOTE. The Urals’ proper name is Uralisk s Cor s , Lat. Uráles Móntes , “ Urals’ Mounts ”, Ural Mountains , cf. Russ. Ура ́ льские го ́ ры ( Uralskiye gory ).

a. A few names of Rivers ending in - &amp;#257; (as Wólg&amp;#257; ), and many Greek names ending in - ē(s) , which usually corresponds to IE - &amp;#257; , are feminine; others are variable or uncertain, generally retaining their oldest attested IE gender in MIE.

NOTE. The Russian hydronym Во ́ лга is akin to the Slavic words for “ wetness, humidity ” (cf. Russ. &amp;#1074;&amp;#1083;&amp;#1072;&amp;#1075;&amp;#1072; , &amp;#1074;&amp;#1086;&amp;#1083;&amp;#1086;&amp;#1075;&amp;#1072; ), maybe from the same root as PIE base wed , wet , easily borrowed in MIE from Slavic as Wólg&amp;#257; .

b. Some names of Mountains are feminines or neuter: as, Álpes (f. pl .), the Alps

NOTE. Álpes , from Latin Alpes , may have been related originally to the source of adjectives albhós [139] ( white , cf. Hitt. alpas , vi) or altós ( high , grown up , from IE al 79 ), possibly from a Celtic or Italic dialect.

3.5.2. Names of Female beings, of Cities, Countries, Plants, Trees and Gems, of many Animals (especially Birds), and of most abstract Qualities, are feminine:

māt r 14 , mother , Djówiliā 63 , Julia , Fránkiā [140] , France , R , Rome , p nus [141] , pine , sanipríjos , sapphire (Gk. sáppheiros , ult. from Skr. sani-priya , lit. “ sacred to Saturn ), wērós 128 , true .

a. Some names of Towns and Countries are masculine: as, Oinitós (from óinos , one , or ‘purer’ IE Jugtós , “ joined ”) Gningodh mos [142] , United Kingdom , Montinécros [143] , Montenegro ; or neuter, as, Sweor giom [144] , Sweden , Finnléndhom [145] , Finland .

b A few names of Plants and Gems follow the gender of their termination; as, kmtáuriom (n.), centaury , ákantos (m., Gk. κανθος), bearsfot , úpolos (m.), opal , from PIE upo , up from under .

NOTE. The gender of most of the above may also be recognized by the terminations, according to the rules given under the different declensions.

3.5.3. Indeclinable nouns, infinitives, terms or phrases used as nouns, and words quoted merely for their form, are neuter:

preso [146] , traffic in , sell , Eur&amp;#333;páio , european (nn), néh&amp;#299;lom , nothing , kómmi / gúmmi , gum .

NOTE 1. Latin nehilum , “ nihil, nil ”, comes from h ī lumsmall thing, trifle ” hence “ not even a small thing, nothing ”, of unknown origin, therefore MIE h lom .

NOTE 2. Eng. gum comes from O.Fr. gomme , from L.Lat. gumma , from Lat. gummi , from Gk. kommi , from Coptic kemai , hence MIE loans Lat. gúmmis , or Gk. kómmis .

3.5.4. Many nouns may be either masculine or feminine, according to the sex of the object. These are said to be of Common Gender: as, eksáliom [147] , exile ; c us 117 , ox or cow ; párents [148] , parent .

NOTE. Several names of animals have a grammatical gender, independent of sex. These are called epicene. Thus, sūs 136 , swine , and wĺpēs 23 , fox , are always feminine.

3.5.5. Nouns, Pronouns, Adjectives and Participles are declined in MIE in two Numbers, singular and plural – PIE had also a possibly dialectal dual – and up to eight cases, Nominative, Vocative, Accusative, Genitive and Oblique - which is found subdivided into combinations of Dative, Locative, Instrumental and Ablative.

NOTE 1. European dialects show around six cases, but most of the oldest attested ones (Ind.-Ira., P.-Gk., Ita.) and Balto-Slavic show remains of up to eight original cases, although the situation has evolved differently due to migrations and linguistic contacts. Traditional theories maintain that the original common PIE situation is a complex system of eight noun cases. On the contrary, a five-case system is for other scholars the oldest situation (of Middle PIE, as Anatolian dialects seem to show), later changed by some dialects by way of merging or splitting the five original cases. It would have been, then, an innovation of individual dialects, just as the phonetic satemization. It is thus a general opinion that in IE III both dialectal trends (split and convergence of Obliques) coexisted. In this Grammar we follow the general Northern trend, ie a general six-case inflection, presenting also the other two cases as they are usually reconstructed for Late PIE, when common endings exist.

NOTE 2. In the number we use singular and plural, and not dual, not only because of its doubtful existence in IE II and the objections to its reconstruction for Late PIE, but because it is also more practical in terms of modern Indo-European languages.

I. The Nominative is the case of the Subject of a sentence.

II. The Vocative is the case of Direct Address.

III. The Accusative is the case of the Direct Object of a verb.  It is used also with many prepositions.

IV. The Genitive may generally be translated by the English Possessive, or by the Objective with the preposition of .


V. The Obliques might be found as:

a. The Dative, the case of the Indirect Object. It may usually be translated into English by the Objective with the preposition to or for .

b. The Locative, the place where .

c. The Instrumental, the thing with .

d. The Ablative, usually the Objective with from , by , with , in or at . It is often found with prepositions.

NOTE. The oblique cases appear in the English pronoun set; these pronouns are often called objective pronouns ; as in she loves me (accusative), give it to me (dative) or that dirt wasn't wiped with me (instrumental), where me is not inflected differently in any of these uses; it is used for all grammatical relationships except the genitive case of possession and a non-disjunctive nominative case as the subject.

3.6. Vowel Grade

1. The vowel grade or Ablaut is normally the alternation between full, zero or lengthened grade vocalism. Proto-Indo-European had a regular ablaut sequence that contrasted the five usual vowel sounds called Thematic , ie e / &amp;#275; / o / &amp;#333; / Ø . This means that in different forms of the same word, or in different but related words, the basic vowel, a short / e /, could be replaced by a long / &amp;#275; /, a short / o / or a long / &amp;#333; /, or it could be omitted (transcribed as Ø ).

NOTE. The term Ablaut comes from Ger. Abstufung der Laute , “ vowel alternation ”. In Romance languages, the term Apophony is preferred.

2. When a syllable had a short e , it is said to be in the “ e-grade ”; when it had no vowel, it is said to be in the “ zero-grade ”, when in o , in “ o-grade ”, and they can also be “ lengthened ”. The e-grade is sometimes called “ full grade ”.

A classic example of the five grades of ablaut in a single root is provided by the following different case forms of IE pat r , father , and pat r , fatherless (possibly originally PIE Nom. ph 2 ter - s > ph 2 t&amp;#275;r ):

Ablaut grade

MIE

Greek

Case

e-grade or full grade

pa - tér - m

πα- &amp;#964;&amp;#941;&amp;#961;

pa- tér -a

Accusative

lengthened e-grade

pa - t r

πα- &amp;#964;&amp;#942;&amp;#961;

pa- t r

Nominative

zero-grade

pa - tr - ós

πα- &amp;#964;&amp;#961; -ός

pa- tr -ós

Genitive

o-grade

n - pa - t r - m

-πά- &amp;#964;&amp;#959;&amp;#961;

a-pá- tor -a

Accusative

lengthened o-grade

n - pa - t r

-πά- &amp;#964;&amp;#969;&amp;#961;

a-pá- t&amp;#333;r

Nominative

3. Late PIE had ablaut differences within the paradigms of verbs and nouns that were probably significant secondary markers. Compare for example for an original PIE pértus , passing , passage , (from IE verb pérō , go through ):

PIE

root ( per -)

suffix (- tu )

Nominative

pér - tu - s

e-grade

zero-grade

Accusative

pér - tu - m

e-grade

zero-grade

Genitive

pr - téu - s

zero-grade

e-grade

Dative

pr - t ( eu )- ei

zero-grade

e-grade

4. Some common examples of different vowel grades (including their lengthened form) as found in Proto-Indo-European are the following:

Vowel Grade

Full (F)

Zero ( Ø )

Lengthened  (L)

e / o - Ø - &amp;#275; / &amp;#333;

ped , dom

pd , dm

p ē d , d ō m

ie / io - i - i&amp;#275; / i&amp;#333;

djeus

diwos / djus

dj ē -

ue / uo - u - u&amp;#275; / u&amp;#333;

kwon

kun -

kw ō n

ei / oi - u / i - &amp;#275;i / &amp;#333;i

bheid

bhid

bh ē id

eu / ou - u / i - &amp;#275;u / &amp;#333;u

bheud , ous

bhud , us

bh ē ud , ō us

ā / &amp;#275; / ō - a - &amp;#257; / &amp;#275; / &amp;#333;

bhle , bha , oku

bhla , bha , aku

bhl ē , bh ā , ō ku

au / ai - u / i - &amp;#257;u / &amp;#257;i

bhau , aik

bhu

bh ā u , ā ik

ēi / ōi - &amp;#363; / ī - &amp;#275;i / &amp;#333;i

po ( i )

pi

p ō i

3. There are also some other possible vowel grade changes, as a-grade , i-grade and u-grade , which usually come from old root endings, rather than from systematized phonetic changes.

NOTE. The alternation e / Ø was apparently in older stages of PIE dependent on the accent. Compare kléwos / klutós , eími / imés , patérm / patrós , etc., where the unaccented morpheme looses its vowel. This happened only in the oldest formations, though, as IE III had probably already lost this morphological pattern, freezing the older alternations into a more or less stable vocabulary without changes in vowel grade.

3.7. Word Formation

3.7.1. Word Formation refers to the creation of new words from older ones. Indo-European scholars show an especial interest in Derivational Affixes (most commonly Suffixes), ie morphemes that are attached to a base morpheme, such as a Root or a Stem, to form a new word. The main affixes are:

A. Athematic suffixes,

a. The most simple is the zero-ending, ie root nouns like dem - s (Gk. des -), house , in consonant, as neq - t - s (Hitt. nekuz ), night , or men - s (Av. maz -), mind , in - r , as ghés - ōr (Hitt. ki šš ar ), hand , with apophony, Ac. ghes - ér - m (Hitt. ki šš eran ), Loc. ghés - r - i (Hitt. ki š ri , Gk. kheirí ), with ending - n , as or - &amp;#333;n (Hitt. ara [ š ], stem aran -, from PIE * h 3 or - o-, cf. OHG aro , Eng. erne , Gk. or - n -[ is ]), eagle . Common examples include r gs , as Lat. rex , Cel. ri , Gmc. r&amp;#299;h , Skr. r&amp;#257;t , c u s , as Lat. bou , Cel. , Gmc. ko , Skr. gáu / go , m&amp;#363;s , Lat. m&amp;#363;s , Gk. μ ς, Gmc. m&amp;#363;s , Sla. mys , Skr. m&amp;#363; , etc.

b. Also, the stem r / n , with - r - in ‘strong’ cases (Nom-Acc.) and - n - in the Obliques, is well represented in Anatolian; see Variable Nouns in the next chapter for more on these heteroclites .

c. An old stem in - u - appears eg in the words gón - u , knee , dór - u , wood , and ój - u , “ lifetime ”, cf. Av. z&amp;#257;n&amp;#363; , d&amp;#257;r&amp;#363; , &amp;#257;ii&amp;#363; , Skr. j nu , d ru , yu , Gk. góny , dóry , ou ( ), “ no ”, etc. Apophonic variants are found as full-grade génw -, dérw -, éjw -, cf. Hitt. genu -, Lat. genu -, Sla. dérw - o , Gk. ai ( w )- , etc., and as zero-grade gn - éw , dr - éw , ( a ) j - éw -, as in Goth. kniu , Av. yao š , Hitt. ganu - t , etc. Such zero-grades are found within Declension, in Composition (cf. Skr. jñu - b&amp;#257;dh -, “ kneeled ”, Gk. dru - tómos , “ timber - cutter ”), and in Derivation, as eg ju - wén -, vigorous , young (cf. Skr. yuván -, Lat. iuuen - is ).

d. A suffix - it -, which refers to edible substances, as mel - it , honey (cf. Gk. mélit -, Hitt. milit , Luw. mallit , Gmc. mil -), sép - it , wheat (cf. Hitt. š eppit , Gk. álphit ), etc.

B. Feminine and Abstract (Collectives),

a. A general suffix * -(e)h 2 is found in Feminine, as in sén&amp;#257; -, old (* senah 2 , cf. Gk. hén&amp;#275; , Skr. ś anā -, Lith. senà ), swekr&amp;#363; ́ s , husband’s mother (* swekrúh 2 -, cf. O.Sla. svekr ŭ , Lat. socrus , OHG swigar ), in Abstract Collectives, as in Gk. tom , cut, or neur , rope made from sinew (IE néurom ), etc., and in the Nom.-Acc. Neuter singular of the collective that functions as Nom.-Acc. Plural (cf. Skr. yug , Gk. zygá , Lat. iuga , Goth. juka , “ jokes ”, Hitt. - a , Pal. - a /- &amp;#257; , etc.).

b. It is also very well attested a Feminine and Abstract Collective - &amp;#299; , PIE *- ih 2 , with variant - i ,  PIE *- jah 2 /- jeh 2 , cf. Skr. dev (Gen. d vyās ), “ goddess ”, v kīs (Gen. v kías ), “ she-wolf ”, etc.

C. Thematic Suffixes, the most abundant affixes found in Nominal and Adjectival derivation,

a. A simple - o -, which appears in some primary and secondary old formations, as w&amp;#314;q - o - s , wolf , &amp;#341;tk - o - s , bear , neuters jug - ó - m , joke , wérg - o - m , work , adjectives sén - o -, old , néw - o -, new , etc.

NOTE. The Distinction into primary and secondary is not straightforward, unless there is an older root attested; compare eg éku - o - s , horse , which is usually deemed a derivation from quick , IE &amp;#333;kús .

Accented - ó - is deemed a secondary suffix which marks the possession of the base, as well as adjectives in - ó - with lengthened grade root, cf. IE cj , bow’s string , as Skr. jyá , but cjós , bow (< “ that has a bow’s string ”), as Gk. biós , or swekurós (> swékuros ), husband’s father , from swekr&amp;#363; ́ s , husband’s mother , deiwós , from dj us , etc.

b. About the Root Grade, o-grade roots are found in two thematic types, barytone Action Nouns (cf. Gk. tómos , “ slice ”), and oxytones Agent Nouns and Adjectives (cf. Gk. tomós , “ who cuts, acute ”), both from IE tem , cut ; zero-grade in neuters jug - óm , joke , from jeug , join , and in second elements of compounds like ni - sd - ós , nest , from sed , sit , or newo - gn - ós , “ newborn ”, as Gk. neognós .

c. Adjectival suffixes - jo - and - ijo - have a relational sense, as in cow - jós , “ of a cow/ox ”, from cow -, cow , ox , as in Av. gaoya -, Skr. gavyá or gávya , Gk. hekatóm - boios , “ that costs a hundred cows ”,  Arm. kogi (< cow - ijo -), “ derived from the cow ”, O.Ir. ambu æ (< - cow - ijo -, as in Skr. ágos , Gk. aboúte ō ), “ man without cows ”, or eg patriós , paternal , pediós , “ of the foot ”, etc. As a nominal suffix, cf. Lat. ingenium , officium , O.Ir. cride , setig , Skr. vairya , saujanya , Sla. stoletie , dolia , etc.

d. Verbal adjectives in - - (Ind.-Ira. - -), with zero-grade verbal root, are common in secondary derivation, as in klu - tós , heard , famous , from kleu , hear , cf. Skr. ś rutá -, Av. sruta -, Gk. klytós , Lat. in - clitus , M.Ir. rocloth , OHG Hlot -, Arm. lu , etc. They were incorporated to the Verbal inflection as participles and gerunds. For nouns in - to -, - no -, - ti ( j ) - o -, - ni ( j ) - o -, - tu ( w ) - o -, - nu ( w ) - o -, etc. cf. Skr. svápn ( i ) ya , pr ā v ī nya , Lat. somnium , dominium , O.Ir. blíad(a)in , Sla. sunie , cozarenie , etc.

e. Other common thematic suffixes include - -, - ro -, - mo - , and diminutives in - ko -, - lo -, - isko -, etc. which may also be participial, ordinal or adjectival (from nouns) lengthenings. They are usually preceded by a vowel, as in - e / onó -, - e / oro -, and so on. Compare for example from cher , warm , adjective cher - mós , warm , cf. Skr. gharmá , Av. gar ə ma -, Gk. thermós , Toc. A. särme , Phryg. Germiai , Arm. jerm , Alb. zjarm , or o-grade Gmc. warmaz , Lat. formus (< chor - mos ). - bhó - gives names of animales, as eg Gk. éribhos , “ kid ”.

f. A secondary suffix - tero -/- toro - marks the opposition of two notions, and is found in Anatolian (cf. Hitt. nun-taras, Adv. gen. “ from now ”), en - terós / al - terós (or anterós ), “ the other (of two) ” (cf. Goth. an þar , Skr. ántaras , Lat. alter , etc.) opposed to a simple “ other ”, aliós (cf. Skr. anyás , Lat. alius , Gk. állos , Goth. aljis ). This suffix is also found in some syntactic formations, as Gk. deksiósaris-terós , skaiósdeksi-terós , both meaning “ right - left ” (Benveniste 1948).

g. The suffix - - is particularly found in words for “ alive ”, as c - - (cf. Skr. j ī vás , Lat. u ī uos , O.Ir. béo , Welsh buw , Goth. qius ) and “ death ”, as mr - - (cf. O.Ir. marb , Welsh marw , and also Lat. mortuos , Sla. m ĭ rtv ŭ , where the - t - was possibly inserted influenced by mr - tós , “ mortal ”).

h. There are some instrumental suffixes, as - tro -, - tlo -, - klo -, - dhro -, - dhlo -, as Lat. - trum , - c(u)lum , - brum , - bulum , etc.; eg ára - trom , plough , cf. Gk. árotron , Lat. aratrum , O.Ir. arathar , Welsh aradr , Arm. arawr , Lith. árklas , etc.; also, Gk. báthron , O.Ind. bharítram , Goth. f ō dr , etc.

i. Other common suffixes (also participial) are - m n -, - mon -, - mn -, with secondary - mn - to -, - men - o -, - men - t - (and - wen - t -), etc., cf. Lat. augmentum , or Goth. hliumant , equivalent to O.Ind. s&amp;#769;rómatam , both meaning “ reputation ”, from klew , hear , and so on.