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Appendix III: Etymological Notes

III.2. Indefinite, Demonstrative, and Personal Pronouns

III.2.1. Indefinite Pronouns

 

PIE

Latin

Greek

Sanskrit

Hittite

English

German

Gothic

Gaelic

Russian

(sol)woi

omnes

oloi

visva, sarva

hūmant-

all

alle, jeder

alls

u(i)le

все

qāqos

quisque

ekateros,             ekastos

pratieka

kuissa

every one

jeder

ainhvarjizuh                       ainhvaþaruh    

cach, cách  (gal. papon)

каждый, еже--какой 'what, which

qisqis

quisquis                        quīlĭbĕt                            quīvis                              quīviscumque

tis                      ostis dh                ostis dhpote         ostis oun

kacit                                kaścana                    kopi

kuis kuis, kuis-as kuis,

anyone

jeder

              hvazuh               hvarjizuh

duine ar bith

всякий                    

qiskomqe, qisimmoqe

quiscumque

tis an                        tis ean

yah kaś cit                       yo yah                          yadanga

kuis imma, kuis imma kuis, kuis-as imma (kuis)

whoever

jeder der, wer auch immer

sahvazuh saei

cibé duine

кто бы ни

qéjespejoi

quidam

oitines

katipaya

kuis ki

some

etliche

 

 

несколько

qis, edqis                (cf. rus. edvá)

ecquis, aliquis, quis, quispiam, aliquisquam

tis

anyatama

someone

jemand, irgendeiner, etwas

hvas, hvashun

nech, nach, duine

кто-нибудь, кой-что, eтeръ

enis

quīdam

(cf. eniauton)

ekaścana

 

certain

ein gewisser

sums

áirithe

некоторый

somós

īdem  (osc. ekkum)

o autos

eka (aequus),           sama, sah eva

eni, uni, anni, asi

the same

der selbe

sama

an céanna;

 тот же самый

se epse, epe, s(w)el (e)pe

ipse;  arc. sapsa, sumpse

eautos

atman, svayam

apāsila  (cf. hit. kinun lat. nunc)

himself

selbst

silba

fessin, fadessin >féin

сам, о́нсий

neqis

nullus, nec quisquam

oudeis

na kah

UL kuiski

none, nobody

niemand, keiner

(ni) hvashun

ní aon duine        (gal. nepon)

никто

álteros, ónteros

alter

anyatara

(kuis)....kuis

the other one

der andere

 

an ceann eile

 другой, ино́й  (инъ)

aljos*, onjos

alius

allos

anya, itara, apara

tamai-

someone else

anderer

aljis*

aile, aill, eile

*from aljos cf. lat. alibi, gr. alludis, got. aljaþ, etc

 

III.2.2. Demonstrative Pronouns

 

is, se

is (anaf.)

autos               

sah, esah

apā

he

er, der

is

(h)í

 он

(e)ke, ghei-(ke), se, ete

hic<ghe-i-ke

outos

ay-am, id-am, (gen. asya -air. a + len) <* e/ei;  esah (cf. lat. equidem)

kā, eda (def)

this

dieser hier

hi-, sa(h)

sin

 этот,  сей.(ant)

oise, iste, ene

iste <is-te

oios <oihos (tal)

enam (enclit.)

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

el-ne

ille, ollus <el-ne/ol-nos

ekeinos

a-sau, u-

apā

that, yonder

dieser da, jener

jains

(s)ut

тот

 

 

III.2.3. Personal Pronouns

 


 

IE  TON.  AT.

LAT

OSC-UMB

PTOCEL

OIr I

Oir D

Welsh I

Welsh D

CORN

BRET

GR

ARM

N

egṓ, egóm

ego

deest

me, mesme ?

mé, meisse

-----

mi, myvi, myvy, mivi

-----

my, me

me

egw, egwn

es

A

mewom; me

mē (arc.mēd)

deest

*me, *mī

-----

-m-

-----

mi, vi, vyvi, vivi

-vy, -ma, -m-, f(f)

-me, -m-, ff

eme;  me

is

G

mene; mo, mei

meī

deest

*mewe, *mene, *meme

mui, muisse

mo (len)

meu

mi, my, vy (ecl.); -m

ow, ov; -m

ma, va; -m

emou; mou <meso

im

D

meghei; moi

mihī

deest

*me, *mī, *moi

-----

-m-

-----

mi, vi, vyvi, vivi

vy, ma, -m-, f(f)

-me, -m-, ff

emoi; moi

imdz <*imij <*emegh

L

mei, moi

deest

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

is

I

mojo

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

inew

Ab.

med

mehe

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

inén, indzén

N

tiium, tiú

*tū, tustu

tú, tussu

-----

ti, tydi, tidi

-----

ty, te

te

su

du

A

tewom; t(w)e

tiu, tiom, tio, teio

*tu

-----

-t-

-----

di, dy, de, dydi, dydy

-te, -ta, th-, -s

-de; -z-, -t

se; se <*twe

k'ez

G

tewe; t(w)o, t(w)ei

tui; adj. touos, tuus

tuvai 'tuae', tuua, tua, touer, tuer

*towe < *tewe

tái

do (len)

teu

dy  (len); -th (len)

the; -th, -t, -d

da (len), -z (len)

sou <*tweso  

k'o

D

tebhei; t(w)oi

tibī

tfei, tíf,  tefe

*t(w)oi

-----

-t-

-----

di, dy, de, dydi, dydy

-te, -ta, th-, -s

-de; -z-, -t

soi;  soi <*twoi

k'ez

L

t(w)ei, t(w)oi

deest (cf. 3ª sueso, seso)

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

k'ez

I

t(w)ojo

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

k'ew

Ab.

ted

deest

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

-----

k'én, k'ezén

 

 

GMC

GOT

ON

OE

OHG

LIT

PRUS

SLAV

SKR

AV

TOCH

ALB

HITT

*eka (cf. vén. .e.go)

ik

ek

ic

ih

as

azъ

ahám

azə̄m

näṣ, ñuk

unë

u:k (arc.), ammuk

*mike (cf. vén.  mego)

mik

mik

mec, mē

mih

mane

mien <*men

me^

mm, mā

(mā)

*mekwe

 mua, mue

ammuk; -mu

*mīnō

meina

mīn

mīn

mīn

manęs

mais(e)

mene

máma, me

mana

ñi <*mäñi

 im <I + em

ammēl

*miza

mis

mēr

mir

mâni(e), man

mennei, māim <instr.

mi'nje'; mi

máhya, máhyam, me

mabya, mabyah (mai)

ammuk; -mu

…..

…..

…..

…..

…..

manyje

-----

mi'nje'

  máyi

-----

=dat.

…..

…..

…..

…..

…..

manimi

-----

mъnojo^

máyā

deest

…..

…..

…..

…..

…..

…..

-----

-----

-----

mát

mat

ammēdaz

*þū

þū

þū

þū

dū, du

tu

toū, tou, thou,  tu

ty

 tvám

tvə̄m, tūm (tard.) (tū)

A tu, В t(u)we

ti <*tū

zik

*þeke

þuk

þik

þe(c)

dih

tave

tien, tin <*ten

te^

tvm, tvā

θąm (θvā)

tuk; -tta, -ttu

*þīn

þeina

þīn

þīn

dīn

tavęs

twais(e)

tebe

táva, te

tava (tai)

adi. y-t, ac. tën-t

tuēl

*þeza

þus

þēr

þē

dir

tâvi(e), tau

tebbei, tebbe

tebje'; ti

túbhya, túbhyam, te

tabya, tabyah (tai)

tuk; -tta, -ttu

…..

…..

…..

…..

…..

tavyje

-----

tebje'

tváyi, tvé

-----

=dat.

…..

…..

…..

…..

…..

tavimi

-----

tobojo^

tváyā

θvā (tardiiuum)

…..

…..

…..

…..

…..

…..

-----

-----

-----

tvát

θat

tuēdaz

 

 

TON.  AT.

LAT

O-U

PTOCEL

OIr I

Oir D

Welsh I

Welsh D

CORN

BRET

GR

ARM

N

wejes, n̥smé

nōs

desunt

*(s)nīs <*(s)nēs; *snīsnīs

snisni, sníni, sisni, sinni, sní

-----

ni, nini

-----

ny

ni, ny

hmeis <nsme + es , eol. amme <nsme

mek' <*wes

A

nōns <*nosms, n̥smé; nos

nōs

*snōs

-----

-nn-

-----

-n-, -m, n(n)

ny, ny ny; -n-, -gan-, -gen-

ni, -n-, -on-, -hon-;-mp

hmas

mez

G

n̥seróm; nos

nostrum, -ī

*aterom <*n̥serom /so n̥sme