7.3.5. Third Conjugation

1. Verbs of the Third Conjugation usually end in -i- and are almost always thematic.

2. The Present is thematic, while the Imperfect is athematic in -s-.

Verb: trudio [from treud, squeeze], compress (cf. eng. thrust)

Present Stem

Imperfect Stem

Perfect Stem

Future Stem

trudie/o-

trudies-

(tre)trodie/o-

tredise/o-

3. The Present is formed with the Present stem and primary endings. The Subjunctive, thematic, with lengthened vowel.

 

 

Indicative

Subjunctive

Optative

 

 

Present

Sg.

1.

trudio

trudiom

trudioim

2.

trudiesi

trudies

trudiois

3.

trudieti

trudiet

trudioit

Pl.

1.

trudiomos

trudiomo

trudioime

2.

trudiethe

trudiete

trudioite

3.

trudionti

trudiont

trudioient

4. The Imperfect is formed with the Imperfect stem, i.e., athematic in -(e)-s and secondary desinences. When the Indicative is athematic, the Subjunctive is thematic.

 

 

Imperfect

Sg.

1.

trudiesm

trudiesom

trudiesiem

2.

trudiess

trudieses

trudiesies

3.

trudiest

trudieset

trudiesiet

Pl.

1.

trudiesme

trudiesomo

trudiesime

2.

trudieste

trudiesete

trudiesite

3.

trudiesent

trudiesont

trudiesint

5. The Perfect is made with root vowel o/, and Perfect endings. The Subjunctive is formed with secondary endings and lengthened theme vowel.

 

 

Perfect

Sg.

1.

(tre)trodia

(tre)trodiom

(tre)trodioim

2.

(tre)trodietha

(tre)trodies

(tre)trodiois

3.

(tre)trodie

(tre)trodiet

(tre)trodioit

Pl.

1.

(tre)trudiome

(tre)trudiomo

(tre)trudioime

2.

(tre)trudiete

(tre)trudiete

(tre)trudioite

3.

(tre)trudier

(tre)trudiont

(tre)trudioient

6. The Past Perfect is formed with the Perfect stem, adding secondary desinences. The Subjunctive, with lengthened theme vowel and secondary endings.

 

 

Past Perfect

Sg.

1.

(tre)trodiom

(tre)trodiom

(tre)trodioim

2.

(tre)trodies

(tre)trodies

(tre)trodiois

3.

(tre)trodiet

(tre)trodiet

(tre)trodioit

Pl.

1.

(tre)trudiomo

(tre)trudiomo

(tre)trudioime

2.

(tre)trudiete

(tre)trudiete

(tre)trudioite

3.

(tre)trudiont

(tre)trudiont

(tre)trudioient

7. The Future is formed generally with root vowel e and an -s- ending, and primary desinences.

 

 

Future

Sg.

1.

trediso

tredisom

tredisoim

2.

tredisesi

tredises

tredisois

3.

trediseti

trediset

tredisoit

Pl.

1.

tredisomos

tredisomo

tredisoime

2.

tredisethe

tredisete

tredisoite

3.

tredisonti

tredisont

tredisoient

8. The Conditional is made with the Future stem and secondary endings.

 

 

Conditional

Sg.

1.

tredisom

tredisom

tredisoim

2.

tredises

tredises

tredisois

3.

trediset

trediset

tredisoit

Pl.

1.

tredisomo

tredisomo

tredisoime

2.

tredisete

tredisete

tredisoite

3.

tredisont

tredisont

tredisoient

 

The Middle Voice is made as follows:

9. The Present Middle is formed with the Present stem and Middle primary endings.

 

 

Indicative

Subjunctive

Optative

 

 

Present Middle

Sg.

1.

trudiai

trudioma

trudioima

2.

trudiesoi

trudieso

trudioiso

3.

trudietoi

trudieto

trudioito

Pl.

1.

trudiomesdha

trudiomedha

trudioimedha

2.

trudiedhe

trudiodhue

trudioidhue

3.

trudiontoi

trudionto

trudioiento

10. The Imperfect Middle is formed with the Imperfect stem and Middle secondary endings, with accent on the theme vowel. The Subjunctive is thematic when the Indicative is athematic.

 

 

Imperfect Middle

Sg.

1.

trudiesma

trudiesoma

trudiesiema

2.

trudiesso

trudieseso

trudiesieso

3.

trudiesto

trudieseto

trudiesieto

Pl.

1.

trudiesmedha

trudiesomedha

trudiesimedha

2.

trudiesdhue

trudiesedhue

trudiesidhue

3.

trudiesnto

trudiesonto

trudiesinto

11. The Perfect Middle is made with root vowel and the Middle secondary endings.

 

 

Perfect Middle

Sg.

1.

(tre)trudioma

(tre)trudioma

(tre)trudioima

2.

(tre)trudieso

(tre)trudieso

(tre)trudioiso

3.

(tre)trudieto

(tre)trudieto

(tre)trudioito

Pl.

1.

(tre)trudiomedha

(tre)trudiomedha

(tre)trudioimedha

2.

(tre)trudiedhue

(tre)trudiedhue

(tre)trudioidhue

3.

(tre)trudionto

(tre)trudionto

(tre)trudioiento

12. The Past Perfect Middle is formed with the Perfect stem and Middle secondary endings.

 

 

Past Perfect Middle *

Sg.

1.

(tre)trodioma

(tre)trodioma

(tre)trodioima

2.

(tre)trodieso

(tre)trodieso

(tre)trodioiso

3.

(tre)trodieto

(tre)trodieto

(tre)trodioito

Pl.

1.

(tre)trudiomedha

(tre)trudiomedha

(tre)trudioimedha

2.

(tre)trudiedhue

(tre)trudiedhue

(tre)trudioidhue

3.

(tre)trudionto

(tre)trudionto

(tre)trudioiento

13. The Future Middle is formed with the Future stem and Middle primary endings.

 

 

Future Middle

Sg.

1.

tredisai

tredisoma

tredisoima

2.

tredisesoi

trediseso

tredisoiso

3.

tredisetoi

trediseto

tredisoito

Pl.

1.

tredisomesdha

tredisomedha

tredisoimedha

2.

tredisedhe

tredisedhue

tredisoidhue

3.

tredisontoi

tredisonto

tredisoiento

14. The Conditional Middle is made with the Future stem and Middle secondary endings.

 

 

Conditional Middle

Sg.

1.

tredisoma

tredisoma

tredisoima

2.

trediseso

trediseso

tredisoiso

3.

trediseto

trediseto

tredisoito

Pl.

1.

tredisomedha

tredisomedha

tredisoimedha

2.

tredisedhue

tredisedhue

tredisoidhue

3.

tredisonto

tredisonto

tredisoiento

15. The Passive Voice is formed like the Middle but with Passive endings.

 

 

Indicative

Subjunctive

Optative

 

 

Present Passive

Sg.

1.

trudiar

trudiomar

trudioimar

2.

trudiesor

trudiesor

trudioisor

3.

trudietor

trudietor

trudioitor

Pl.

1.

trudiomor

trudiomor

trudioimor

2.

trudiedhuer

trudiodhuer

trudioidhuer

3.

trudiontor

trudiontor

trudioientor

 

 

 

Imperfect Passive

Sg.

1.

trudiesmar

trudiesomar

trudiesiemar

2.

trudiessor

trudiesesor

trudiesiesor

3.

trudiestor

trudiesetor

trudiesietor

Pl.

1.

trudiesmor

trudiesomor

trudiesimor

2.

trudiesdhuer

trudiesedhuer

trudiesidhuer

3.

trudiesntor

trudiesontor

trudiesintor

 

 

 

Perfect Passive

Sg.

1.

(tre)trudiomar

(tre)trudiomar

(tre)trudioimar

2.

(tre)trudiesor

(tre)trudiesor

(tre)trudioisor

3.

(tre)trudietor

(tre)trudietor

(tre)trudioitor

Pl.

1.

(tre)trudiomor

(tre)trudiomor

(tre)trudioimor

2.

(tre)trudiedhuer

(tre)trudiedhuer

(tre)trudioidhuer

3.

(tre)trudiontor

(tre)trudiontor

(tre)trudioientor

 

 

 

Past Perfect Passive*

Sg.

1.

(tre)trodiomar

(tre)trodiomar

(tre)trodioimar

2.

(tre)trodiesor

(tre)trodiesor

(tre)trodioisor

3.

(tre)trodietor

(tre)trodieto

(tre)trodioitor

Pl.

1.

(tre)trudiomor

(tre)trudiomor

(tre)trudioimor

2.

(tre)trudiedhuer

(tre)trudiedhuer

(tre)trudioidhuer

3.

(tre)trudiontor

(tre)trudiontor

(tre)trudioientor

 

 

 

Future Passive

Sg.

1.

tredisar

tredisomar

tredisoimar

2.

tredisesor

tredisesor

tredisoisor

3.

tredisetor

tredisetor

tredisoitor

Pl.

1.

tredisomor

tredisomor

tredisoimor

2.

tredisedhuer

tredisedhuer

tredisoidhuer

3.

tredisontor

tredisontor

tredisoientor

 

 

 

Conditional Passive

Sg.

1.

tredisomar

tredisomar

tredisoimar

2.

tredisesor

tredisesor

tredisoisor

3.

tredisetor

tredisetor

tredisoitor

Pl.

1.

tredisomor

tredisomor

tredisoimor

2.

tredisedhuer

tredisedhuer

tredisoidhuer

3.

tredisontor

tredisontor

tredisoientor

16. The Imperative is made as follows:

 

 

Present

SING.

2.

trudie

 

3.

trudietod

PLUR.

2.

trudiete

 

3.

trudiontod

17. The rest of the possible formations are shown in the next table:

 

Europaio

English

Infinitive

trudio

to compress

Verbal Noun

trudio-

the compressing

Present Participle

trudiont

who compresses, who compressed, ...

Perfect Participle

trudiuos

compressed

Middle Participle

trudiemno-

who compresses himself

Passive Participle

trudieto-

(been) compressed

Gerundive

trudielo-

who has to be compressed

Absolutive/Gerund

trudielo

of compressing, to the compressing,...