3. Passive Voice

The Passive is not a common old feature of the IE III dialects; it is nevertheless necessary to develop a common modern European grammatical feature based on old endings, like the Conditional.

The -r ending was usual in the Middle Voice, and it either had a special impersonal value or marked the Middle voice. There are thus two features to distinguish their uses: the form and the meaning.

a. The -r after the stem has usually in Europaio an impersonal value, and can be lengthened: -ro, -roi, -renti, -ronti, -rontoi, etc. They are used in the 3. person singular and plural, and the -nt- is added when needed to distinguish the plural; and when the Middle was needed, an -o was added. The primary -i was also added with this aim.

b. The -r after the ending was usual in forms related to the Middle Voice in Latin, Italic, Celtic, Tocharian (and even Germanic, Indo-Iranian and Anatolian). Especially in some European dialects, they replaced the primary Middle endings, and acquired a Middle-Passive value. There was, however, no opposition primary/secondary. In our Europaio system, we have chosen to assign this especially European (Northern) value to these endings, leaving the general forms in -i for the middle.

Note. The older meaning traceable (possibly that of IE II) of these endings are the same, though: impersonal subject or, at least, subject separated from the action.

 

 

PASSIVE

SING.

1.

-(m)ar

 

2.

-sor

 

3.

-tor

PLUR.

1.

-mosr/mor

 

2.

-dhuer

 

3.

-(e/o)ntor

This scheme can be further subdivided in the thematic and athematic paradigms:

 

 

Athematic

Thematic

SING.

1.

-mar

-ar, -omar

 

2.

-sor

-esor

 

3.

-tor

-etor

PLUR.

1.

-mosr/-mor

-omosr/-omor

 

2.

-dhuer

-edhuer

 

3.

-(e)ntor

-ontor

The passives formed with these endings are only the dynamic ones, though, not the statives, which are formed with the verb es, to be. See 7.1.3. for more information on dynamic passives.