1. The following Noun and Adjective forms are also included in the inflection of the Europaio Verb:
a. The Infinitive and Verbal Nouns exist in Europaio, but there are no original prototypes, as they were in older times nouns, which began to be inflected as verbs. The pure stems of the verb (usually thematic, but for thematic roots of the first declension) are used for the infinitives.
NOTE. It is common to most IE languages that a special case-form of the nouns (usually dative or accusative) froze, thus entering the verbal inflection and becoming infinitives. This system cannot be reproduced here, as no general pattern can be found, not even to a little group of Northern proto-languages.
b. The Participles are old adjectives which, as the infinitives, were then included in the verb inflection.
I. The oldest known is that of the Present, in -nt.
II. The Perfect, newer, has multiple endings, as -ues, -uos, -uet, -uot.
III. The Middle Participles, also new, end in -meno, -mono, -mno; and also some in -to, -no, -lo, etc.
c. The Gerund and the Absolutive weren't general in IE III, as the infinitives. They indicate possibility or necessity, and were formed differently.
2. The Participles are used as follows:
a. The Present Participle has commonly the same meaning and use as the English participle in -ing: as wokant, calling; legent, reading.
b. The Perfect Participle has two uses:
I. It is sometimes equivalent to the English perfect passive participle: as, tektos, sheltered; adkeptos, accepted; and often has simply an adjective meaning: as, adkeptos, acceptable.
II. It is used with the verb to be (es) to form the static passive: as (i) esti wokatos, (he) is called.
c. The Gerundive is often used as an adjective implying obligation, necessity, or propriety (ought or must): as, (i) audhiendhos esti, (he) must be heard.