7.3.6. Fourth Conjugation

1. Verbs of the Fourth Conjugation end in -e, -a, and are always athematic.

2. The Present is athematic, while the Imperfect is thematic in -s-.

Verb: klusina [from kleu, hear], listen

Present Stem

Imperfect Stem

Perfect Stem

Future Stem

klusina-

klusinate/o-

(ke)klosina-

klesinas-

3. The Present is formed with the Present stem and primary endings. The Subjunctive, with lengthened vowel, also thematic.

 

 

Indicative

Subjunctive

Optative

 

 

Present

Sg.

1.

klusinami

klusinaem

klusinaiem

2.

klusinasi

klusinaes

klusinaies

3.

klusinati

klusinaet

klusinaiet

Pl.

1.

klusinames

klusinaomo

klusinaime

2.

klusinathe

klusinaete

klusinaite

3.

klusinanti

klusinaont

klusinaint

4. The Imperfect is formed with the Imperfect stem (i.e., thematic in -t) and secondary endings, with accent on the theme vowel. When the Indicative is thematic, the Subjunctive has a lengthened theme vowel.

 

 

Imperfect

Sg.

1.

klusinatom

klusinatom

klusinatoim

2.

klusinates

klusinates

klusinatois

3.

klusinatet

klusinatet

klusinatoit

Pl.

1.

klusinatomo

klusinatomo

klusinatoime

2.

klusinatete

klusinatete

klusinatoite

3.

klusinatont

klusinatont

klusinatoient

5. The Perfect is made with root vowel in o/, and Perfect endings. The Subjunctive, thematic, with secondary endings.

 

 

Perfect

Sg.

1.

klosina*

klosinaom

klosinaiem

2.

klosinatha

klosinaes

klosinaies

3.

klosinae

klosinaet

klosinaiet

Pl.

1.

klsiname

klsinaomo

klsinaime

2.

klsinate

klsinaete

klsinaite

3.

klsinaer

klsinaont

klsinaint

Note. The form klosina is a contracted form of *klosinaa. Otherwise, it could be confused with an added schwa sound (also written a), which wouldn't be contracted.

6. The Past Perfect is obtained with the Perfect stem, adding secondary desinences. The Subjunctive, thematic and secondary endings.

 

 

Past Perfect

Sg.

1.

klosinam

klosinaom

klosinaiem

2.

klosinas

klosinaes

klosinaies

3.

klosinat

klosinaet

klosinaiet

Pl.

1.

klsiname

klsinaomo

klsinaime

2.

klsinate

klsinaete

klsinaite

3.

klsinant

klsinaont

klsinaint

7. The Future is formed usually with root vowel e and an -s- addition, and primary endings. It is athematic, as the Present.

 

 

Future

Sg.

1.

klesinasmi

klesinasom

klesinasiem

2.

klesinassi

klesinases

klesinasies

3.

klesinasti

klesinaset

klesinasiet

Pl.

1.

klesinasmes

klesinasomo

klesinasime

2.

klesinasthe

klesinasete

klesinasite

3.

klesinasenti

klesinasont

klesinasint

8. The Conditional is formed with the Future stem and secondary endings.

 

 

Conditional

Sg.

1.

klesinasm

klesinasom

klesinasiem

2.

klesinass

klesinases

klesinasies

3.

klesinast

klesinaset

klesinasiet

Pl.

1.

klesinasme

klesinasomo

klesinasime

2.

klesinaste

klesinasete

klesinasite

3.

klesinasent

klesinasont

klesinasint

 

The Middle Voice Paradigm is as follows:

9. The Present Middle is formed with the Present stem and Middle primary endings.

 

 

Indicative

Subjunctive

Optative

 

 

Present Middle

Sg.

1.

klusinamai

klusinaoma

klusinaiema

2.

klusinasoi

klusinaeso

klusinaieso

3.

klusinatoi

klusinaeto

klusinaieto

Pl.

1.

klusinamesdha

klusinaomedha

klusinaimedha

2.

klusinadhe

klusinaodhue

klusinaidhue

3.

klusinantoi

klusinaonto

klusinainto

10. The Imperfect Middle is made with the Imperfect stem and Middle secondary endings, with accent on the theme vowel. The Subjunctive has lengthened vowel and is also thematic.

 

 

Imperfect Middle

Sg.

1.

klusinatoma

klusinatoma

klusinatoima

2.

klusinateso

klusinateso

klusinatoiso

3.

klusinateto

klusinateto

klusinatoito

Pl.

1.

klusinatomedha

klusinatomedha

klusinatoimedha

2.

klusinatedhue

klusinatedhue

klusinatoidhue

3.

klusinatonto

klusinatonto

klusinatoiento

11. The Perfect Middle is formed with root vowel and Middle secondary endings.

 

 

Perfect Middle

Sg.

1.

klsinama

klsinaoma

klsinaiema

2.

klsinaso

klsinaeso

klsinaieso

3.

klsinato

klsinaeto

klsinaieto

Pl.

1.

klsinamedha

klsinaomedha

klsinaimedha

2.

klsinadhue

klsinaedhue

klsinaidhue

3.

klsinanto

klsinaonto

klsinainto

12. The Past Perfect Middle is obtained with the Perfect stem and Middle secondary endings.

 

 

Past Perfect Middle

Sg.

1.

klosinama

klosinaoma

klosinaiema

2.

klosinaso

klosinaeso

klosinaieso

3.

klosinato

klosinaeto

klosinaieto

Pl.

1.

klsinamedha

klsinaomedha

klsinaimedha

2.

klsinadhue

klsinaedhue

klsinaidhue

3.

klsinanto

klsinaonto

klsinainto

13. The Future Middle is formed with the Future stem and primary endings.

 

 

Future Middle

Sg.

1.

klesinasmai

klesinasoma

klesinasiema

2.

klesinassoi

klesinaseso

klesinasieso

3.

klesinastoi

klesinaseto

klesinasieto

Pl.

1.

klesinasmesdha

klesinasomedha

klesinasimedha

2.

klesinasdhe

klesinasedhue

klesinasidhue

3.

klesinasentoi

klesinasonto

klesinasinto

14. The Conditional Middle is made with the Future stem and secondary endings.

 

 

Conditional Middle

Sg.

1.

klesinasma

klesinasoma

klesinasiema

2.

klesinasso

klesinaseso

klesinasieso

3.

klesinasto

klesinaseto

klesinasieto

Pl.

1.

klesinasmedha

klesinasomedha

klesinasimedha

2.

klesinasdhue

klesinasedhue

klesinasidhue

3.

klesinasento

klesinasonto

klesinasinto

15. The Passive Voice is obtained from the Middle forms with Passive endings:

 

 

Indicative

Subjunctive

Optative

 

 

Present Passive

Sg.

1.

klusinamar

klusinaomar

klusinaiemar

2.

klusinasor

klusinaesor

klusinaiesor

3.

klusinator

klusinaetor

klusinaieto

Pl.

1.

klusinamor

klusinaomor

klusinaimor

2.

klusinadhuer

klusinaodhuer

klusinaidhuer

3.

klusinantor

klusinaontor

klusinaintor

 

 

 

Imperfect Passive

Sg.

1.

klusinatomar

klusinatomar

klusinatoimar

2.

klusinatesor

klusinatesor

klusinatoisor

3.

klusinatetor

klusinatetor

klusinatoitor

Pl.

1.

klusinatomor

klusinatomor

klusinatoimor

2.

klusinatedhuer

klusinatedhuer

klusinatoidhuer

3.

klusinatontor

klusinatontor

klusinatoientor

 

 

 

Perfect Passive

Sg.

1.

klsinamar

klsinaomar

klsinaiemar

2.

klsinasor

klsinaesor

klsinaiesor

3.

klsinator

klsinaetor

klsinaietor

Pl.

1.

klsinamor

klsinaomor

klsinaimor

2.

klsinadhuer

klsinaedhuer

klsinaidhuer

3.

klsinantor

klsinaontor

klsinaintor

 

 

 

Past Perfect Passive

Sg.

1.

klosinamar

klosinaomar

klosinaiemar

2.

klosinasor

klosinaesor

klosinaiesor

3.

klosinator

klosinaetor

klosinaietor

Pl.

1.

klsinamor

klsinaomor

klsinaimor

2.

klsinadhuer

klsinaedhuer

klsinaidhuer

3.

klsinantor

klsinaontor

klsinaintor

 

 

 

Future Passive

Sg.

1.

klesinasmar

klesinasomar

klesinasiemar

2.

klesinassor

klesinasesor

klesinasiesor

3.

klesinastor

klesinasetor

klesinasietor

Pl.

1.

klesinasmor

klesinasomor

klesinasimor

2.

klesinasdhuer

klesinasedhuer

klesinasidhuer

3.

klesinasentor

klesinasontor

klesinasintor

 

 

 

Conditional Passive

Sg.

1.

klesinasmar

klesinasomar

klesinasiemar

2.

klesinassor

klesinasesor

klesinasiesor

3.

klesinastor

klesinasetor

klesinasietor

Pl.

1.

klesinasmor

klesinasomor

klesinasimor

2.

klesinasdhuer

klesinasedhuer

klesinasidhuer

3.

klesinasentor

klesinasontor

klesinasintor

16. The Imperative is formed as follows:

 

 

Imperative

SING.

2.

klusina

 

3.

klusinatod

PLUR.

2.

klusinate

 

3.

klusinatod

16. Other possible forms are:

 

Europaio

English

Infinitive

klusina

to listen

Verbal Noun

klusina-

the listening

Present Participle

klusinant

who listenes, who listened, listening

Perfect Participle

klusinaues

listened

Middle Participle

klusinamno-

who listens to himself

Passive Participle

klusinato-

(been) listened

Gerundive

klusinalo-

who has to be listened

Absolutive/Gerund

klusinalo

of listening, to the listening,...