IV. Present Consonant Stem

1. Europaio Roots can be lengthened with an occlusive to give a verb stem, general or Present-only. Present stems are made with the dentals, -t, -d, -dh; and gutturals, -k, -g, -gh; but not with labials or labiovelars. They are all thematic, and the lengthenings are added to the Root.

NOTE. The lengthening was probably optional in an earlier stage of the language.

2. Here are some examples:

- t : plekto, weave; kanto, sing; klustio, hear, listen, etc.

- d : saldo, to salt; ekskeld, be eminent, pelde, beat, etc.

- dh : ghrdh, gird; gawidhe, rejoice; woldh, dominate, etc.

- k : pedka, stumble;  pleuko, fly; gelkio, freeze, etc.

- g : tmego from temna, cut, etc.

- gh : smegho with smen, negho with ne, stenagho with steno, etc.

3. Imperfect Stems in -s and its derivatives, -sk- and -st-, are almost all thematic.

4. Those in -s are the only ones that have an especial general meaning, as they often mark the Imperfect and the Future (and sometimes the Subjunctive); they are not Thematic when they function as Imperfects.

The -s lengthening does not present a general opposition Basic Verb / Deverbative Stem in -s.

NOTE. There are, however, some different meanings of the verbal stems in -s opposed to those without it; as insistence or iteration; as, weidso, visit, with wide, see. There are also some causatives and especially desideratives (which could even form the future stem in the southern dialects). There is, then, no general meaning of the ending -s, only opposed pairs of meanings.

5. The Suffix -ske/-sko is added to Roots with Ø-grade, especially in monosyllabics and disyllabics; as in prk-sko, ask, cm-ske, go, gno-sko, know, di-dk-ske, teach. It can also be added to Reduplicated stems and to lengthened Roots, especially in -i, -u, -e, -a. They don't usually have a special Meaning.

NOTE. Sometimes these Deverbatives can be inchoatives (especially in Latin), causatives or iteratives, and even determinatives or terminatives.

3. The suffix -ste/-sto has usually an expressive sense, meaning sounds most of the times; as, breste, tremble; bhrsto, break;

4. The Stems in -n are said to have a nasal suffix orinfix. They can be athematic or thematic, and the most common forms are -n, -neu/-nu, -na: as in str-neu / ster-nu, spread; li-n-eq / li-n-q, leave; ml-na / ml-na, tame; dhreng, drink; pung, prik; planta, plant; etc. These verbs can be found also without the nasal, as in streu, leiq, dma/dma, dhreg, peug, plat.

There are other, less general forms in -ne/-no, -[']ne/-[']no; and possibly derived from the conjugations of -neu and -nei, the forms -nue/-nuo, -nie/-nio.

NOTE. These forms are very recent to the IE III.

Some examples of the above are sperno, plno. In Greek it is frequent the nasal suffix -an. -nue, -nuo and -nie, -nio appear often, too; as in gr. phthínuo, got. winnan; gr. iaíno, phaínomai, and verbs in oi. in -niati.