2. Imperative

The Imperative had probably in IE II the same basic stem of the Indicative, but without ending and in expressive-impressive function, of exclamation or order; they are the equivalent to the vocative in nouns. Some IE III dialects derived from this older scheme another, more complex Imperative system, with person, tense and even voice.

NOTE. In the third stage of the language, only the person distinctions were generalized, and we have included only these known forms.

It is also old, beside the use of the pure stem, the use of the Injunctive for the Imperative in the second person plural, as in bhere / bherete, lege / legete. The Injunctive is defined as a form with secondary endings without augment. It indicated therefore neither the Present nor the Past, thus easily indicating intention. It is this form which was generally used as the Imperative.

The pure stem for the second person singular Imperative is thus general; for the second person plural, it is the injunctive; and the third person sg. and pl. have special endings, those in -tod.

The main forms of the Imperative in our system are made with the Present stem and secondary endings, and are thus generally:

a. The old, athematic Imperatives; as in ei, go; es, be; etc.

 

 

Athematic

SING.

2.

-

 

3.

-tod

PLUR.

2.

-te

 

3.

-entod

NOTE 1. In old root athematic verbs, the plural forms have vowel and the accent goes on the ending.

NOTE 2. Some scholars reconstruct, with the form, a dialectal ending -dhi for the second person singular athematic. It should also be noted that the forms in -tod were used in some dialects as Future Imperatives.

b. Thematic Imperatives; as bhere!, carry! age!, do!, act!; etc.

 

 

Thematic

SING.

2.

-e

 

3.

-etod

PLUR.

2.

-ete

 

3.

-ontod