7.3.2. First Conjugation

1. Verbs of the First Conjugation are formed directly from Root stems, and maintain this form throughout the entire Conjugation.

NOTE. They are probably the remains of the oldest type of verb conjugation, in which there were neither suffixes nor endings to combine, but only the accent and the vowel degrees to differentiate between tenses, aspects and moods.

2. The Present is formed with root vowel e and root accent, as in leiqe/o or leiqe/o, while the Imperfect is formed with root vowel and accent on the theme vowel, as in liqe/liqo, when that is possible.

Verb: bhero, carry (cf. eng. bear)

Present Stem

Imperfect Stem

Perfect Stem

Future Stem

bhere/o-

bhre/o-

(bhe)bhore/o

bherse/o-

NOTE. Europaio verbs should be referred to by the first person singular Present and its conjugation type, so that it can be known wether they are thematic or not, and how they should be conjugated. If they are irregular verbs, however, they should be referred to with the first person singular Present, Imperfect, Perfect and Future.

3. The Present is formed with the Present stem and primary endings. The Subjunctive, with lengthened theme vowel and secondary endings.

 

 

Indicative

Subjunctive

Optative

 

 

Present

Sg.

1.

bhero

bherom

bheroim

2.

bheresi

bheres

bherois

3.

bhereti

bheret

bheroit

Pl.

1.

bheromos

bheromo

bheroime

2.

bherethe

bherete

bheroite

3.

bheronti

bheront

bheroient

4. The Imperfect is made with the Imperfect stem (i.e., root vowel and accentuated theme vowel) and secondary endings. The Subjunctive is formed with lengthened theme vowel and secondary endings.

 

 

Imperfect

Sg.

1.

bhrom

bhrom

bhroim

2.

bhres

bhres

bhrois

3.

bhret

bhret

bhroit

Pl.

1.

bhromo

bhromo

bhroime

2.

bhrete

bhrete

bhroite

3.

bhront

bhront

bhroient

NOTE 1. These forms are read [bh'rom], [bh'res], etc., from the grade form bhr [bh'r]

NOTE 2. An accentuated initial e- is added to the past forms in the Southern Dialects, although modern Europaio Imperfect stems corresponds normally to their Aorist formations.

5. The Perfect is obtained with root vowel o/ in singular/plural, and the Perfect endings. The Subjunctive is formed with lengthened theme vowel and secondary endings.

 

 

Perfect

Sg.

1.

(bhe)bhora

(bhe)bhorom

(bhe)bhoroim

2.

(bhe)bhoretha

(bhe)bhores

(bhe)bhorois

3.

(bhe)bhore

(bhe)bhoret

(bhe)bhoroit

Pl.

1.

(bhe)bhrome

(bhe)bhrome

(bhe)bhroime

2.

(bhe)bhrete

(bhe)bhrete

(bhe)bhroite

3.

(bhe)bhrer

(bhe)bhront

(bhe)bhroient

NOTE. Reduplication, if given, must be simple and with -e; full reduplication has a general intensive meaning (see 7.2.5.,2.III). Full reduplication of bher would be bherbher (or dialectal bheribher). Bhibher (Present reduplication, with -i) is a Present stem of another verb, usually meaning the same as the original root.

6. The Past Perfect is made with the Perfect stem, adding secondary endings. The Subjunctive is formed with lengthened theme vowel and secondary endings.

 

 

Past Perfect

Sg.

1.

(bhe)bhorom

(bhe)bhorom

(bhe)bhoroim

2.

(bhe)bhores

(bhe)bhores

(bhe)bhorois

3.

(bhe)bhoret

(bhe)bhoret

(bhe)bhoroit

Pl.

1.

(bhe)bhromo

(bhe)bhromo

(bhe)bhroime

2.

(bhe)bhrete

(bhe)bhrete

(bhe)bhroite

3.

(bhe)bhront

(bhe)bhront

(bhe)bhroient

7. The Future is made generally with the root in e and an -s, and primary endings. The Subjunctive is formed with lengthened theme vowel and secondary endings.

 

 

Future

Sg.

1.

bherso

bhersom

bhersoim

2.

bhersesi

bherses

bhersois

3.

bherseti

bherset

bhersoit

Pl.

1.

bhersomos

bhersomo

bhersoime

2.

bhersethe

bhersete

bhersoite

3.

bhersonti

bhersont

bhersoient

8. The Conditional is formed with the Future stem and secondary endings. The Subjunctive is formed with lengthened theme vowel and secondary endings.

 

 

Conditional

Sg.

1.

bhersom

bhersom

bhersoim

2.

bherses

bherses

bhersois

3.

bherset

bherset

bhersoit

Pl.

1.

bhersomo

bhersomo

bhersoime

2.

bhersete

bhersete

bhersoite

3.

bhersont

bhersont

bhersoient

NOTE. The Conditional is new to modern Europaio, and its correctness and practical use is still to be proven.

The Middle Voice is made as follows:

9. The Present Middle is formed with the Present stem and Middle primary endings. The Subjunctive is formed with lengthened theme vowel and secondary endings.

 

 

Indicative

Subjunctive

Optative

 

 

Present Middle

Sg.

1.

bherai

bheroma

bheroima

2.

bheresoi

bhereso

bheroiso

3.

bheretoi

bhereto

bheroito

Pl.

1.

bheromesdha

bheromedha

bheroimedha

2.

bheredhe

bherodhue

bheroidhue

3.

bherontoi

bheronto

bheroiento

10. The Imperfect Middle is made with the Imperfect stem  (i.e., root vowel and accent on the theme vowel) and Middle secondary endings.

 

 

Imperfect Middle

Sg.

1.

bhroma

bhroma

bhroima

2.

bhreso

bhreso

bhroiso

3.

bhreto

bhreto

bhroito

Pl.

1.

bhromedha

bhromedha

bhroimedha

2.

bhredhue

bhredhue

bhroidhue

3.

bhronto

bhronto

bhroiento

NOTE. These forms are read [bh'roma], [bh'reso], etc., from the grade form bhr [bh'r]

11. The Perfect Middle is formed with root vowel and Middle secondary desinences.

 

 

Perfect Middle

Sg.

1.

(bhe)bhroma

(bhe)bhroma

(bhe)bhroima

2.

(bhe)bhreso

(bhe)bhreso

(bhe)bhroiso

3.

(bhe)bhreto

(bhe)bhreto

(bhe)bhroito

Pl.

1.

(bhe)bhromedha

(bhe)bhromedha

(bhe)bhroimedha

2.

(bhe)bhredhue

(bhe)bhredhue

(bhe)bhroidhue

3.

(bhe)bhronto

(bhe)bhronto

(bhe)bhroiento

NOTE. These forms are read [bh'romo] or [bhebh'romo], etc., from the grade form bhr [bh'r]

12. The Past Perfect Middle is made with the Perfect stem adding Middle secondary desinences.

 

 

Past Perfect Middle

Sg.

1.

(bhe)bhoroma

(bhe)bhoroma

(bhe)bhoroima

2.

(bhe)bhoreso

(bhe)bhoreso

(bhe)bhoroiso

3.

(bhe)bhoreto

(bhe)bhoreto

(bhe)bhoroito

Pl.

1.

(bhe)bhromedha

(bhe)bhromedha

(bhe)bhroimedha

2.

(bhe)bhredhue

(bhe)bhredhue

(bhe)bhroidhue

3.

(bhe)bhronto

(bhe)bhronto

(bhe)bhroiento

13. The Future Middle is formed with the Future stem and Middle primary endings.

 

 

Future Middle

Sg.

1.

bhersai

bhersoma

bhersoima

2.

bhersesoi

bherseso

bhersoiso

3.

bhersetoi

bherseto

bhersoito

Pl.

1.

bhersomesdha

bhersomedha

bhersoimedha

2.

bhersedhe

bhersedhue

bhersoidhue

3.

bhersontoi

bhersonto

bhersoiento

14. The Conditional Middle is made with the Future stem and Middle secondary endings.

 

 

Conditional Middle

Sg.

1.

bhersoma

bhersoma

bhersoima

2.

bherseso

bherseso

bhersoiso

3.

bherseto

bherseto

bhersoito

Pl.

1.

bhersomedha

bhersomedha

bhersoimedha

2.

bhersedhue

bhersedhue

bhersoidhue

3.

bhersonto

bhersonto

bhersoiento

15. The Passive Voice is made like the Middle, but with Passive endings:

 

 

Indicative

Subjunctive

Optative

 

 

Present Passive

Sg.

1.

bherar

bheromar

bheroimar

2.

bheresor

bheresor

bheroisor

3.

bheretor

bheretor

bheroitor

Pl.

1.

bheromosr

bheromosr

bheroimosr

2.

bheredhuer

bherodhuer

bheroidhuer

3.

bherontor

bherontor

bheroientor

 

 

 

Imperfect Passive

Sg.

1.

bhromar

bhromar

bhroimar

2.

bhresor

bhresor

bhroisor

3.

bhretor

bhretor

bhroitor

Pl.

1.

bhromor

bhromor

bhroimor

2.

bhredhuer

bhredhuer

bhroidhuer

3.

bhrontor

bhrontor

bhroientor

 

 

 

Perfect Passive

Sg.

1.

(bhe)bhromar

(bhe)bhromar

(bhe)bhroimar

2.

(bhe)bhresor

(bhe)bhresor

(bhe)bhroisor

3.

(bhe)bhretor

(bhe)bhretor

(bhe)bhroitor

Pl.

1.

(bhe)bhromor

(bhe)bhromor

(bhe)bhroimor

2.

(bhe)bhredhuer

(bhe)bhredhuer

(bhe)bhroidhuer

3.

(bhe)bhrontor

(bhe)bhrontor

(bhe)bhroientor

 

 

 

Past Perfect Passive

Sg.

1.

(bhe)bhoromar

(bhe)bhoromar

(bhe)bhoroimar

2.

(bhe)bhoresor

(bhe)bhoresor

(bhe)bhoroisor

3.

(bhe)bhoretor

(bhe)bhoretor

(bhe)bhoroitor

Pl.

1.

(bhe)bhromor

(bhe)bhromor

(bhe)bhroimor

2.

(bhe)bhredhuer

(bhe)bhredhuer

(bhe)bhroidhuer

3.

(bhe)bhrontor

(bhe)bhrontor

(bhe)bhroientor

 

 

 

Future Passive

Sg.

1.

bhersar

bhersomar

bhersoimar

2.

bhersesor

bhersesor

bhersoisor

3.

bhersetor

bhersetor

bhersoitor

Pl.

1.

bhersomor

bhersomor

bhersoimor

2.

bhersedhuer

bhersedhuer

bhersoidhuer

3.

bhersontor

bhersontor

bhersoientor

 

 

 

Conditional Passive

Sg.

1.

bhersomar

bhersomar

bhersoimar

2.

bhersesor

bhersesor

bhersoisor

3.

bhersetor

bhersetor

bhersoitor

Pl.

1.

bhersomor

bhersomor

bhersoimor

2.

bhersedhuer

bhersedhuer

bhersoidhuer

3.

bhersontor

bhersontor

bhersoientor

16. The Imperative is formed as follows:

 

 

Imperative

SING.

2.

bhere

 

3.

bheretod

PLUR.

2.

bherete

 

3.

bherontod

 

17. Other possible forms are shown in the next table:

 

Europaio

English

Infinitive

bher

to carry

Verbal Noun

bhero-

the carrying

Present Participle

bheront

who carries, who carried, carrying

Perfect Participle

bherues

carried

Middle Participle

bheremno-

who carries himself,...

Passive Participle

bheresto-

(been) carried

Gerundive

bherelo-

who has to be carried

Absolutive/Gerund

bherelo

of carrying, to the carrying,...