7.3.4. Second Conjugation

1. Verbs of the Second Conjugation have a consonant ending and are always thematic. The consonants are usually -t-, -d-, -dh-, -k- (often -sk-), -g-, -gh- and even -s-; they can also have the suffix or infix -n-.  

2. The Present is thematic, while the Imperfect is athematic, generally in -s-.

Verb: mensko [from men, to think], think, remember (cf. eng. reminiscent, borrowed from lat.)

Present Stem

Imperfect Stem

Perfect Stem

Future Stem

menske/o-

mnskes-

(me)monske/o-

menskise/o-

3. The Present is formed with the Present stem and primary endings. The Subjunctive, thematic, with lengthened vowel.

 

 

Indicative

Subjunctive

Optative

 

 

Present

Sg.

1.

mensko

menskom

menskoim

2.

menskesi

menskes

menskois

3.

mensketi

mensket

menskoit

Pl.

1.

menskomos

menskomo

menskoime

2.

menskethe

menskete

menskoite

3.

menskonti

menskont

menskoient

4. The Imperfect is obtained with the Imperfect stem, i.e., athematic in -(e)-s, and secondary endings, with accent on the theme vowel. When the Indicative is athematic, the Subjunctive is thematic.

 

 

Imperfect

Sg.

1.

mnskesm

mnskesom

mnskesiem

2.

mnskess

mnskeses

mnskesies

3.

mnskest

mnskeset

mnskesiet

Pl.

1.

mnskesme

mnskesomo

mnskesime

2.

mnskeste

mnskesete

mnskesite

3.

mnskesent

mnskesont

mnskesint

NOTE. An accentuated initial e- is added to the past forms in the Southern Dialects, although Modern Europaio Imperfect stems corresponds normally to their Aorist formations.

5. The Perfect is formed with root vowel o/, and Perfect endings. The Subjunctive is formed with secondary endings and lengthened theme vowel.

 

 

Perfect

Sg.

1.

(me)monska

(me)monskom

(me)monskoim

2.

(me)monsketha

(me)monskes

(me)monskois

3.

(me)monske

(me)monsket

(me)monskoit

Pl.

1.

(me)mnskome

(me)mnskomo

(me)mnskoime

2.

(me)mnskete

(me)mnskete

(me)mnskoite

3.

(me)mnsker

(me)mnskont

(me)mnskoient

6. The Past Perfect is made with the perfect stem, adding secondary desinences. The Subjunctive is formed with lengthened theme vowel and secondary endings.

 

 

Past Perfect

Sg.

1.

(me)monskom

(me)monskom

(me)monskoim

2.

(me)monskes

(me)monskes

(me)monskois

3.

(me)monsket

(me)monsket

(me)monskoit

Pl.

1.

(me)mnskomo

(me)mnskomo

(me)mnskoime

2.

(me)mnskete

(me)mnskete

(me)mnskoite

3.

(me)mnskont

(me)mnskont

(me)mnskoient

7. The Future is formed generally with root vowel e and an -s- ending, and adding primary endings.

 

 

Future

Sg.

1.

menskiso

menskisom

menskisoim

2.

menskisesi

menskises

menskisois

3.

menskiseti

menskiset

menskisoit

Pl.

1.

menskisomos

menskisomo

menskisoime

2.

menskisethe

menskisete

menskisoite

3.

menskisonti

menskisont

menskisoient

NOTE. -i-s- is a typical lat. and i.-i. addition before the ending. We use it in the conjugation of this particular verb, partly because it comes from Latin, but mainly because the pronunciation is thus easier as without the initial -i.

8. The Conditional is made with the Future stem and secondary endings.

 

 

Conditional

Sg.

1.

menskisom

menskisom

menskisoim

2.

menskises

menskises

menskisois

3.

menskiset

menskiset

menskisoit

Pl.

1.

menskisomo

menskisomo

menskisoime

2.

menskisete

menskisete

menskisoite

3.

menskisont

menskisont

menskisoient

 

The Middle Voice is made as follows:

9. The Present Middle is made with the Present stem and Middle primary endings.

 

 

Indicative

Subjunctive

Optative

 

 

Present Middle

Sg.

1.

menskai

menskoma

menskoima

2.

menskesoi

menskeso

menskoiso

3.

mensketoi

mensketo

menskoito

Pl.

1.

menskomesdha

menskomedha

menskoimedha

2.

menskedhe

menskedhue

menskoidhue

3.

menskontoi

menskonto

menskoiento

10. The Imperfect Middle is formed with the Imperfect stem and Middle secondary endings. The Subjunctive is thematic when the Indicative is athematic.

 

 

Imperfect Middle

Sg.

1.

mnskesma

mnskesoma

mnskesiema

2.

mnskesso

mnskeseso

mnskesieso

3.

mnskesto

mnskeseto

mnskesieto

Pl.

1.

mnskesmedha

mnskesomedha

mnskesimedha

2.

mnskesdhue

mnskesedhue

mnskesidhue

3.

mnskesento

mnskesonto

mnskesinto

11. The Perfect Middle is made with root vowel and Middle secondary endings.

 

 

Perfect Middle

Sg.

1.

(me)mnskoma

(me)mnskoma

(me)mnskoima

2.

(me)mnskeso

(me)mnskeso

(me)mnskoiso

3.

(me)mnsketo

(me)mnsketo

(me)mnskoito

Pl.

1.

(me)mnskomedha

(me)mnskomedha

(me)mnskoimedha

2.

(me)mnskedhue

(me)mnskedhue

(me)mnskoidhue

3.

(me)mnskonto

(me)mnskonto

(me)mnskoiento

12. The Past Perfect Middle is formed with the Perfect stem, and Middle secondary endings.

 

 

Past Perfect Middle

Sg.

1.

(me)monskoma

(me)monskoma

(me)monskoima

2.

(me)monskeso

(me)monskeso

(me)monskoiso

3.

(me)monsketo

(me)monsketo

(me)monskoito

Pl.

1.

(me)mnskomedha

(me)mnskomedha

(me)mnskoimedha

2.

(me)mnskedhue

(me)mnskedhue

(me)mnskoidhue

3.

(me)mnskonto

(me)mnskonto

(me)mnskoiento

13. The Future Middle is formed with the Future stem and Middle primary endings.

 

 

Future Middle

Sg.

1.

menskisai

menskisoma

menskisoima

2.

menskisesoi

menskiseso

menskisoiso

3.

menskisetoi

menskiseto

menskisoito

Pl.

1.

menskisomesdha

menskisomedha

menskisoimedha

2.

menskisedhe

menskisedhue

menskisoidhue

3.

menskisontoi

menskisonto

menskisoiento

14. The Conditional is made with the Future stem and Middle secondary desinences.

 

 

Conditional Middle

Sg.

1.

menskisoma

menskisoma

menskisoima

2.

menskiseso

menskiseso

menskisoiso

3.

menskiseto

menskiseto

menskisoito

Pl.

1.

menskisomedha

menskisomedha

menskisoimedha

2.

menskisedhue

menskisedhue

menskisoidhue

3.

menskisonto

menskisonto

menskisoiento

15. The Passive Voice is made like the Middle but with passive endings.

 

 

Indicative

Subjunctive

Optative

 

 

Present Passive

Sg.

1.

menskar

menskomar

menskoimar

2.

menskesor

menskesor

menskoisor

3.

mensketor

mensketor

menskoitor

Pl.

1.

menskomor

menskomor

menskoimor

2.

menskedhuer

menskedhuer

menskoidhuer

3.

menskontor

menskontor

menskoientor

 

 

 

Imperfect Passive

Sg.

1.

mnskesmar

mnskesomar

mnskesiemar

2.

mnskessor

mnskesesor

mnskesiesor

3.

mnskestor

mnskesetor

mnskesietor

Pl.

1.

mnskesmor

mnskesomor

mnskesimor

2.

mnskesdhuer

mnskesedhuer

mnskesidhuer

3.

mnskesentor

mnskesontor

mnskesintor

 

 

 

Perfect Passive

Sg.

1.

(me)mnskomar

(me)mnskomar

(me)mnskoimar

2.

(me)mnskesor

(me)mnskesor

(me)mnskoisor

3.

(me)mnsketor

(me)mnsketor

(me)mnskoitor

Pl.

1.

(me)mnskomor

(me)mnskomor

(me)mnskoimor

2.

(me)mnskedhuer

(me)mnskedhuer

(me)mnskoidhuer

3.

(me)mnskontor

(me)mnskontor

(me)mnskoientor

 

 

 

Past Perfect Passive

Sg.

1.

(me)monskomar

(me)monskomar

(me)monskoimar

2.

(me)monskesor

(me)monskesor

(me)monskoisor

3.

(me)monsketor

(me)monsketor

(me)monskoitor

Pl.

1.

(me)mnskomor

(me)mnskomor

(me)mnskoimor

2.

(me)mnskedhuer

(me)mnskedhuer

(me)mnskoidhuer

3.

(me)mnskontor

(me)mnskontor

(me)mnskoientor

 

 

 

Future Passive

Sg.

1.

menskisar

menskisomar

menskisoimar

2.

menskisesor

menskisesor

menskisoisor

3.

menskisetor

menskisetor

menskisoitor

Pl.

1.

menskisomor

menskisomor

menskisoimor

2.

menskisedhuer

menskisedhuer

menskisoidhuer

3.

menskisontor

menskisontor

menskisoientor

 

 

 

Conditional Passive

Sg.

1.

menskisomar

menskisomar

menskisoimar

2.

menskisesor

menskisesor

menskisoisor

3.

menskisetor

menskisetor

menskisoitor

Pl.

1.

menskisomor

menskisomor

menskisoimor

2.

menskisedhuer

menskisedhuer

menskisoidhuer

3.

menskisontor

menskisontor

menskisoientor

16. The Imperative is formed as follows:

 

 

Imperative

SING.

2.

menske

 

3.

mensketod

PLUR.

2.

menskete

 

3.

menskontod

17. Other possible formations are shown in the next table:

 

Europaio

English

Infinitive

mensko

to inquire

Verbal Noun

mensko-

the inquiring

Present Participle

menskont

who inquires, who inquired, inquiring

Perfect Participle

menskues

inquired

Middle Participle

menskemno-

who inquires himself

Passive Participle

mensketo-

(been) inquired

Gerundive

menskelo-

who has to be inquired

Absolutive/Gerund

menskelo

of inquiring, to the inquiring,...