7.3.3. Reduplicated Verbs of the First Conjugation

1. Reduplicated Presents are usually verbs of the First Conjugation, when formed with consonant + i.

NOTE. These reduplicated stems have usually an intensive meaning.

2. In reduplicated stems where the Present is formed with simple reduplication + i,  the Imperfect is formed with the root, without accent shift, and the Perfect is also formed with the reduplicated form, but with e.

NOTE. The three stems are always athematic, so there can be no confusion between reduplicated and non-reduplicated verbs, in Root and Reduplicated conjugation, in the case that full and simple reduplication give the same stem.

Verb: bhibhermi, bear, endure (cf. eng. bear)

Present Stem

Imperfect Stem

Perfect Stem

Future Stem

bhibher-

bher-

bhebher-

bhibhers-

3. The Present is made with the Present stem and primary endings. The Subjunctive is thematic.

 

 

Indicative

Subjunctive

Optative

 

 

Present

Sg.

1.

bhibhermi

bhibherom

bhibheriem

2.

bhibhersi

bhibheres

bhibheries

3.

bhibherti

bhibheret

bhibheriet

Pl.

1.

bhibhrmes

bhibhromo

bhibhrime

2.

bhibhrthe

bhibhrete

bhibhrite

3.

bhibhrenti

bhibhront

bhibhrint

NOTE. The older, root athematic inflection (see 7.2.5, 2.II) is made full/ vowel in a singular/plural scheme, with accent on the ending. For more on this, see 7.2.5, 2.III.

4. The Imperfect is formed with the Imperfect stem (i.e., the root, not reduplicated) and secondary endings.

 

 

Imperfect

Sg.

1.

bherm

bherom

bheriem

2.

bhers

bheres

bheries

3.

bhert

bheret

bheriet

Pl.

1.

bhrme

bhromo

bhrime

2.

bhrte

bhrete

bhrite

3.

bhrent

bhront

bhrint

NOTE. An accentuated initial e- is added to the past forms in the Southern Dialects, although Modern Europaio Imperfect stems corresponds normally to their Aorist formations.

5. The Perfect is made with the Root (possibly reduplicated) in o/ or lengthened vowel, and the Perfect endings. The Subjunctive (thematic) is formed with secondary endings.

 

 

Perfect

Sg.

1.

bhebhora

bhebhorom

bhebhoriem

2.

bhebhortha

bhebhores

bhebhories

3.

bhebhore

bhebhoret

bhebhoriet

Pl.

1.

bhebhrme

bhebhromo

bhebhrime

2.

bhebhrte

bhebhrete

bhebhrite

3.

bhebhrer

bhebhront

bhebhrint

6. The Past Perfect is formed with the Perfect stem, adding secondary endings. The Subjunctive is thematic with secondary endings.

 

 

Past Perfect

Sg.

1.

bhebhorm

bhebhorom

bhebhoriem

2.

bhebhors

bhebhores

bhebhories

3.

bhebhort

bhebhoret

bhebhoriet

Pl.

1.

bhebhrme

bhebhromo

bhebhrime

2.

bhebhrte

bhebhrete

bhebhrite

3.

bhebhrent

bhebhront

bhebhrint

7. The Future is formed generally with the root in e and adding an -s, and with primary endings.

 

 

Future

Sg.

1.

bhibhersmi

bhibhersem

bhibhersiem

2.

bhibherssi

bhibherses

bhibhersies

3.

bhibhersti

bhibherset

bhibhersiet

Pl.

1.

bhibhrsmes

bhibhrsomo

bhibhrsime

2.

bhibhrsthe

bhibhrsete

bhibhrsite

3.

bhibhrsenti

bhibhrsont

bhibhrsint

NOTE. The stem is athematic, always like the Present stem.

8. The Conditional is obtained with the Future stem and secondary endings.

 

 

Conditional

Sg.

1.

bhibhersm

bhibhersem

bhibhersiem

2.

bhibherss

bhibherses

bhibhersies

3.

bhibherst

bhibherset

bhibhersiet

Pl.

1.

bhibhrsme

bhibhrsomo

bhibhrsime

2.

bhibhrste

bhibhrsete

bhibhrsite

3.

bhibhrsent

bhibhrsont

bhibhrsint

 

The Middle Voice is made as follows:

9. The Present Middle is formed with the Present stem and Middle primary endings.

 

 

Indicative

Subjunctive

Optative

 

 

Present Middle

Sg.

1.

bhibhermai

bhibheroma

bhibheriema

2.

bhibhersoi

bhibhereso

bhibherieso

3.

bhibhertoi

bhibhereto

bhibherieto

Pl.

1.

bhibhrmesdha

bhibhromedha

bhibhrimedha

2.

bhibhrdhe

bhibhrodhue

bhibhridhue

3.

bhibhrentoi

bhibhronto

bhibhrinto

10. The Imperfect Middle is made with the Imperfect stem  (i.e., the root, not reduplicated) and Middle secondary endings, with accent on the theme vowel.

 

 

Imperfect Middle

Sg.

1.

bherma

bheroma

bheriema

2.

bherso

bhereso

bherieso

3.

bherto

bhereto

bherieto

Pl.

1.

bhrmedha

bhromedha

bhrimedha

2.

bhrdhe

bhredhue

bhridhue

3.

bhrento

bhronto

bhrinto

11. The Perfect Middle is formed with root vowel and Middle secondary endings.

 

 

Perfect Middle

Sg.

1.

bhebhrma

bhebhroma

bhebhriema

2.

bhebhrso

bhebhreso

bhebhrieso

3.

bhebhrto

bhebhreto

bhebhrieto

Pl.

1.

bhebhrmedha

bhebhromedha

bhebhrimedha

2.

bhebhrdhe

bhebhredhue

bhebhridhue

3.

bhebhrento

bhebhronto

bhebhrinto

12. The Past Perfect Middle is formed with the Perfect stem and Middle secondary endings.

 

 

Past Perfect Middle

Sg.

1.

bhebhorma

bhebhoroma

bhebhoriema

2.

bhebhorso

bhebhoreso

bhebhorieso

3.

bhebhorto

bhebhoreto

bhebhorieto

Pl.

1.

bhebhrmedha

bhebhromedha

bhebhrimedha

2.

bhebhrdhe

bhebhredhue

bhebhridhue

3.

bhebhrento

bhebhronto

bhebhrinto

13. The Future Middle is made with the Future stem, adding Middle endings.

 

 

Future Middle

Sg.

1.

bhibhersmai

bhibhersoma

bhibhersiema

2.

bhibherssoi

bhibherseso

bhibhersieso

3.

bhibherstoi

bhibherseto

bhibhersieto

Pl.

1.

bhibhrsmesdha

bhibhrsomedha

bhibhrsimedha

2.

bhibhrsdhe

bhibhrsedhue

bhibhrsidhue

3.

bhibhrsentoi

bhibhrsonto

bhibhrsinto

14. The Conditional Middle is formed with the Future stem, adding Middle secondary endings.

 

 

Conditional Middle

Sg.

1.

bhibhersma

bhibhersoma

bhibhersiema

2.

bhibhersso

bhibherseso

bhibhersieso

3.

bhibhersto

bhibherseto

bhibhersieto

Pl.

1.

bhibhrsmedha

bhibhrsomedha

bhibhrsimedha

2.

bhibhrsdhue

bhibhrsedhue

bhibhrsidhue

3.

bhibhrsento

bhibhrsonto

bhibhrsinto

15. The Passive Voice is made like the Middle, but with Passive endings:

 

 

Indicative

Subjunctive

Optative

 

 

Present Passive

Sg.

1.

bhibhermar

bhibheromar

bhibheriemar

2.

bhibhersor

bhibheresor

bhibheriesor

3.

bhibhertor

bhibheretor

bhibherietor

Pl.

1.

bhibhrmor

bhibhromor

bhibhrimor

2.

bhibhrdhuer

bhibhrodhuer

bhibhridhuer

3.

bhibhrentor

bhibhrontor

bhibhrintor

 

 

 

Imperfect Passive

Sg.

1.

bhermar

bheromar

bheriemar

2.

bhersor

bheresor

bheriesor

3.

bhertor

bheretor

bherietor

Pl.

1.

bhrmor

bhromor

bhrimor

2.

bhrdhuer

bhredhuer

bhridhuer

3.

bhrentor

bhrontor

bhrintor

 

 

 

Perfect Passive

Sg.

1.

bhebhrmar

bhebhromar

bhebhriemar

2.

bhebhrsor

bhebhresor

bhebhriesor

3.

bhebhrtor

bhebhretor

bhebhrietor

Pl.

1.

bhebhrmor

bhebhromor

bhebhrimor

2.

bhebhrdhuer

bhebhredhuer

bhebhridhuer

3.

bhebhrentor

bhebhrontor

bhebhrintor

 

 

 

Past Perfect Passive

Sg.

1.

bhebhormar

bhebhoromar

bhebhoriemar

2.

bhebhorsor

bhebhoresor

bhebhoriesor

3.

bhebhortor

bhebhoretor

bhebhorietor

Pl.

1.

bhebhrmor

bhebhromor

bhebhrimor

2.

bhebhrdhuer

bhebhredhuer

bhebhridhuer

3.

bhebhrentor

bhebhrontor

bhebhrintor

 

 

 

Future Passive

Sg.

1.

bhibhersmar

bhibhersomar

bhibhersiemar

2.

bhibherssor

bhibhersesor

bhibhersiesor

3.

bhibherstor

bhibhersetor

bhibhersietor

Pl.

1.

bhibhrsmor

bhibhrsomor

bhibhrsimor

2.

bhibhrsdhuer

bhibhrsedhuer

bhibhrsidhuer

3.

bhibhrsentor

bhibhrsontor

bhibhrsintor

 

 

 

Conditional Passive

Sg.

1.

bhibhersmar

bhibhersomar

bhibhersiemar

2.

bhibherssor

bhibhersesor

bhibhersiesor

3.

bhibherstor

bhibhersetor

bhibhersietor

Pl.

1.

bhibhrsmor

bhibhrsomor

bhibhrsimor

2.

bhibhrsdhuer

bhibhrsedhuer

bhibhrsidhuer

3.

bhibhrsentor

bhibhrsontor

bhibhrsintor

16. The Imperative  is formed as follows:

 

 

Imperative

SING.

2.

bhibher

 

3.

bhibhertod

PLUR.

2.

bhibhrte

 

3.

bhibhrentod

17. Other possible forms are shown in the next table:

 

Europaio

English

Infinitive

bhibhero

to bear

Verbal Noun

bhibhero-

the bearing

Present Participle

bhibhernt

who bears, who bore, bearing

Perfect Participle

bhibherues

borne

Middle Participle

bhibhermno-

who bears himself

Passive Participle

bhibhersto-

been borne

Gerundive

bhibherlo-

who has to be borne

Absolutive/Gerund

bhibherlo

of bearing, to the bearing,...