2. Participles

1. The Participles are adjectives which have been assimilated to the verb system, having thus verb inflection.

NOTE. The IE III shows an intense reliance on participles, and thus a certain number of participles played an important role in the language.

2. Those in -nt are the older ones, and are limited to the Active voice and to the Present, Imperfect and Future; as, bheront/bherent, who carries.

3. The Perfect active has a suffix -ues, -uos ( grade -us), or -uet, -uot; as, widwot, widwos, edwos, etc.

NOTE. Both the Present and Perfect participles are indeed inflected following the second declension; as, Nom. -wos, Acc. -wosm, Gen. -usos, Nom. pl. -woses

4. The middle Participles have a suffix -meno-, -meno-, -mno- (originally probably adjectives) as; alomnos, who feeds himself (i.e., alumnus), dhemna, who suckle (i.e., woman, cf. femina).

5. The Participles have been also developed as Passives in some languages, and are used in modern Europaio static passives. They are usually formed with the root or past stem with these suffixes:

a. -to: altos, grown; dhetos, placed; kaptos, haved; etc.

NOTE. The adjectives in -to imply reference to a Noun. They have usually zero-grade root vowel; as liqto-, pikto-, etc.

b. -no: and variants; as, bheidhnos, parted, bitten; wrgnos, worked; delanos, made.

NOTE. Compare with adjectives in -n, as in plnos (got. fulls or lat. plenus).

c. -mo: compare with adjective prwimos lat. primos, first.

d. -lo: see next section.

NOTE. These follow the first-type adjective declension, i.e. that of -os, -a, -om, and are usually accentuated on the ending.