4.1. Declension of Nouns

4.1.1. Declension is made by adding terminations to different stem endings, vowel or consonant. The various phonetic changes in the language have given rise to the several declensions. Most of the case-endings, as given in Europaio, contain also the final letter of the stem.

Adjectives are, in general, declined like nouns, and are etymologically to be classed with them; but they have some peculiarities of inflection.

4.1.2. Nouns are inflected in four Declensions, distinguished by the final phonemes, characteristic of the Stem, and by the opposition of different forms in irregular nouns.


Stem ending




 -i, -u, -i, -u and Diphthongs

-s, -

-e/ois, ios ; -e/ous, -uos


Sonants and Consonants

-s, -

-e/os, -s


-a, -ia /-i / -ia, -e, -o




-e/o (thematic)


-os, -osio, -oso, -i


Variable Nouns



The Stem of a noun may be found, if a consonant stem, by omitting the case-ending; if a vowel stem, by substituting for the case-ending the characteristic vowel.

4.1.3. The following are General Rules of Declension:

a. The Nominative singular for animates ends in -s when the stem endings are -i, i, u, u, diphthong, occlusive and thematic (-os), or - in -a, -a, sonant and -s; while in the plural -es is general, -s for those in -a, and -os for the thematic ones.

b. The Accusative singular of all masculines and feminines ends in -m; the Accusative plural in -ms.

c. The Vocative singular for animates is always -, and in the plural it is identical to the Nominative.

d. The Genitive singular is common to animates and inanimates, it is formed with -s: -s, -es, -os. A very old possibility is -osio. The Genitive plural is formed in -om and -em, and also in -am in a-stems.

e. The Obliques singular end usually in -i: it can be -i, -ei, -ei, -oi, -oi or -ai. In the plural, there are two series of declensions, with -bh (general) and -m (only ger. and sla.), generally -bhi, -bhis, -bhios, -mis, -mos, and also some forms in -si (plural mark -s- plus oblique mark -i), mainly in the southern dialects.

f.  Inanimates have a syncretic form for N.-Ac.-V. in - in athematic, or -m in thematic. The plural forms end in -a or -a.

g. All Animates have the same form in the plural for Nom.-Voc., in -es.

4.1.4. The Oblique cases, opposed to the Straight cases (Nom.-Acc.-Voc) are Genitive and Oblique.